5:75 The Messiah son of Mary, is no more than a messenger; like whom messengers have passed away; and his mother was trustworthy, they used to eat the food. See how We clarify the signs for them, then see how they deviate.  
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Pure and Literal Translation)
 
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Edip-Layth In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate. 4:1 O people, be aware of your Lord who has created you from one person and He created from it its mate and sent forth from both many men and women; and be aware of God whom you ask about, and the relatives. God is watcher over you.1
The Monotheist Group In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful. 4:1 O mankind, be aware of your Lord who has created you from one soul and He created from it its mate and sent forth from it many men and women; and be aware of God whom you ask about, and the relatives. God is watcher over you.
Muhammad Asad In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace: 4:1 O MANKIND! Be conscious of your Sustainer, who has created you out of one living entity, and out of it created its mate, and out of the two spread abroad a multitude of men and women.1 And remain conscious of God, in whose name you demand [your rights] from one another, and of these ties of kinship. Verily, God is ever watchful over you!
Rashad Khalifa In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 4:1 O people, observe your Lord; the One who created you from one being, and created from it its mate, then spread from the two many men and women. You shall regard GOD, by whom you swear, and regard the parents. GOD is watching over you.
Shabbir Ahmed BISMILLAH-IR-RAHMAN-IR-RAHEEM With the Glorious Name of God, the Ultimate Source of Instant Beneficence and Eternal mercy Who encompasses the entire Universe, nourishing and taking care of all things for what they are meant to be; just as a mother's womb nourishes the embryo to completion without any returns. 4:1 * O Mankind! You have a common origin. Your Lord began the creation of life at the unicellular level. There was one life cell that divided into two, male and female (6:99). (Evolution took place, as has been alluded to in this Book (16:8, 20:50, 21:30, 22:45, 30:20, 31:28, 51:49). Eventually, numerous men and women came into existence on the earth. Since all of you have this common origin, you must consider all mankind as one community (10:19, 57:25). Your first step in that direction is to strengthen your family relations. Be careful of your duty to God in Whose Name you expect rights from one another. God ever watches over you.
Transliteration Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi 4:1 Ya ayyuha alnnasuittaqoo rabbakumu allathee khalaqakum min nafsin wahidatinwakhalaqa minha zawjaha wabaththa minhumarijalan katheeran wanisaan waittaqoo Allahaallathee tasaaloona bihi waal-arhamainna Allaha kana AAalaykum raqeeban
A بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 4:1 يايها الناس اتقوا ربكم الذى خلقكم من نفس وحدة وخلق منها زوجها وبث منهما رجالا كثيرا ونساء واتقوا الله الذى تساءلون به والارحام ان الله كان عليكم رقيبا
Edip-Layth Polygamy For Protection Of Orphans 4:2 Give the orphans their money; do not replace the good with the bad, and do not consume their money to your money, for truly it is a great sin!
The Monotheist Group 4:2 And give the orphans their money, and do not replace the good with the bad, and do not consume their money with your money; for truly this is a great sin!
Muhammad Asad 4:2 Hence, render unto the orphans their posses­sions, and do not substitute bad things [of your own] for the good things [that belong to them], and do not consume their possessions together with your own:2 this, verily, is a great crime.
Rashad Khalifa Regard the Orphans 4:2 You shall hand over to the orphans their rightful properties. Do not substitute the bad for the good, and do not consume their properties by combining them with yours. This would be a gross injustice.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:2 Orphans in the community are like your family members (33:5). Be vigilant in guarding their rights (4:127). Protect their property honestly, and give it to them when they have come of age. Do not exchange their valuables with your worthless items, nor consume their property by combining it with yours; doing such would be a grave offense.
Transliteration 4:2 Waatoo alyatama amwalahumwala tatabaddaloo alkhabeetha bialttayyibiwala ta/kuloo amwalahum ila amwalikuminnahu kana hooban kabeeran
A 4:2 وءاتوا اليتمى امولهم ولا تتبدلوا الخبيث بالطيب ولا تاكلوا امولهم الى امولكم انه كان حوبا كبيرا
Edip-Layth 4:3 If you fear that you cannot be just to fatherless orphans, then marry those whom you see fit from the women, two, and three, and four. But if you fear you will not be fair then only one, or whom you already have contract with. So that you do not commit injustice and suffer hardship.2
The Monotheist Group 4:3 And if you fear that you cannot be just to the orphans, then you may marry those who are agreeable to you of the women: two, and three, and four. But if you fear you will not be fair, then only one, or to whom you are committed to by oath. This is best that you do not face financial hardship.
Muhammad Asad 4:3 And if you have reason to fear that you might not act equitably towards orphans, then marry from among [other] women such as are lawful to you3 - [even] two, or three, or four: but if you have reason to fear that you might not be able to treat them with equal fairness, then [only] one - or [from among] those whom you rightfully possess.4 This will make it more likely that you will not deviate from the right course.
Rashad Khalifa Grounds For Polygamy 4:3 If you deem it best for the orphans, you may marry their mothers - you may marry two, three, or four. If you fear lest you become unfair, then you shall be content with only one, or with what you already have. Additionally, you are thus more likely to avoid financial hardship.2
Shabbir Ahmed 4:3 If you fear that you (the society) shall not be able to do justice with the orphans, (as may happen in times of war and political turbulence, the government shall announce a state of Emergency), then, in order to accommodate widows and orphans, men of sound finances and character shall be encouraged to marry these widows; two, three, and four (4:127). But, if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly, then, you must not take additional wives, and may continue with what you already have (4:129). This will be more suitable to prevent you from doing injustice and face financial hardship. 2
Transliteration 4:3 Wa-in khiftum alla tuqsitoo feealyatama fainkihoo ma tabalakum mina alnnisa-i mathna wathulathawarubaAAa fa-in khiftum alla taAAdiloo fawahidatanaw ma malakat aymanukum thalika adnaalla taAAooloo
A 4:3 وان خفتم الا تقسطوا فى اليتمى فانكحوا ما طاب لكم من النساء مثنى وثلث وربع فان خفتم الا تعدلوا فوحدة او ما ملكت ايمنكم ذلك ادنى الا تعولوا
Edip-Layth 4:4 Give the women their property willingly, and if they remit any of it to you of their own will, then you may take it with good feelings.
The Monotheist Group 4:4 And give the women their property willingly, and if they remit any of it to you of their own will, then you may take it with good feelings.
Muhammad Asad 4:4 And give unto women their marriage portions in the spirit of a gift;5 but if they, of their own accord, give up unto you aught thereof, then enjoy it with pleasure and good cheer.
Rashad Khalifa 4:4 You shall give the women their due dowries, equitably. If they willingly forfeit anything, then you may accept it; it is rightfully yours.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:4 Upon marriage, give women their marital gifts, a generous portion of your property, unless they forgo it voluntarily. In that case you are welcome to accept it as rightfully yours.
Transliteration 4:4 Waatoo alnnisaa saduqatihinnanihlatan fa-in tibna lakum AAan shay-in minhunafsan fakuloohu hanee-an maree-an
A 4:4 وءاتوا النساء صدقتهن نحلة فان طبن لكم عن شىء منه نفسا فكلوه هنيا مريا
Edip-Layth 4:5 Do not give the immature ones your money, which God has entrusted to you. Spend on them from it and clothe them, and speak to them nicely.
The Monotheist Group 4:5 And do not give the immature ones their money which God has entrusted to you, and spend on them from it and clothe them, and speak to them in goodness.
Muhammad Asad 4:5 And do not entrust to those who are weak of judgment the possessions which God has placed in your charge6 for [their] support; but let them have their sustenance therefrom, and clothe them, and speak unto them in a kindly way.
Rashad Khalifa 4:5 Do not give immature orphans the properties that GOD has entrusted with you as guardians. You shall provide for them therefrom, and clothe them, and treat them kindly.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:5 Do not let the immature orphans manage their property that God has entrusted with you as guardians, until they are able to make sound financial decisions. Feed and clothe them decently, take care of all their needs and interact with them kindly.
Transliteration 4:5 Wala tu/too alssufahaaamwalakumu allatee jaAAala Allahu lakum qiyamanwaorzuqoohum feeha waoksoohum waqooloo lahumqawlan maAAroofan
A 4:5 ولا توتوا السفهاء امولكم التى جعل الله لكم قيما وارزقوهم فيها واكسوهم وقولوا لهم قولا معروفا
Edip-Layth 4:6 Test the orphans until they reach the age of marriage, then if you determine in them sound judgment, then give them their wealth, and do not deliberately consume it wastefully or quickly before they grow up. Whoever is rich, then let him not claim anything, and if he is poor then let him consume only properly. If you give to them their wealth, then make a witness for them, and God is enough for Reckoning.
The Monotheist Group 4:6 And test the orphans when they reach puberty, then, if you have determined from them comprehension, then give them their wealth, and do not deliberately consume it wastefully or quickly before they grow up. And whoever is rich, then let him not claim anything, and if he is poor then let him consume only in goodness. If you give to them their wealth, then make a witness for them, and God is enough for Reckoning.
Muhammad Asad 4:6 And test the orphans [in your charge] until they reach a marriage­able age; then, if you find them to be mature of mind, hand over to them their possessions; and do not consume them by wasteful spending, and in haste, ere they grow up. And let him who is rich abstain entirely [from his ward's property]; and let him who is poor partake thereof in a fair manner. And when you hand over to them their possessions, let there be witnesses on their behalf - although none can take count as God does.
Rashad Khalifa 4:6 You shall test the orphans when they reach puberty. As soon as you find them mature enough, give them their property. Do not consume it extravagantly in a hurry, before they grow up. The rich guardian shall not charge any wage, but the poor guardian may charge equitably. When you give them their properties, you shall have witnesses. GOD suffices as Reckoner.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:6 Train and educate the orphans well. When they reach the age of marriage, and attain sound judgment, release their property to them. The marriageable age shall mean attainment of physical and mental maturity when one can make a solemn, legal contract (4:21). Do not consume their property, nor hastily spend it fearing that they will come of age. If the guardian is well off, let him claim no compensation for the management of the property. But, if he is poor he may have a just and reasonable amount. When you are releasing the property to the orphans be sure to take witnesses. Remember that God is Competent in taking account.
Transliteration 4:6 Waibtaloo alyatama hattaitha balaghoo alnnikaha fa-in anastumminhum rushdan faidfaAAoo ilayhim amwalahum walata/kulooha israfan wabidaran an yakbaroowaman kana ghaniyyan falyastaAAfif waman kanafaqeeran falya/kul bialmaAAroofi fa-itha dafaAAtumilayhim amwalahum faashhidoo AAalayhim wakafa biAllahihaseeban
A 4:6 وابتلوا اليتمى حتى اذا بلغوا النكاح فان ءانستم منهم رشدا فادفعوا اليهم امولهم ولا تاكلوها اسرافا وبدارا ان يكبروا ومن كان غنيا فليستعفف ومن كان فقيرا فلياكل بالمعروف فاذا دفعتم اليهم امولهم فاشهدوا عليهم وكفى بالله حسيبا
Edip-Layth Inheritance Rights 4:7 For the men is a portion from what the parents and the relatives left behind, and for the women is a portion from what the parents and relatives left behind, be it little or much; an imposed portion.3
The Monotheist Group 4:7 For the men is a portion from what the parents and the relatives left behind, and for the women is a portion from what the parents and relatives left behind, be it little or much; a forced portion.
Muhammad Asad 4:7 MEN SHALL have a share in what parents and kinsfolk leave behind, and women shall have a share in what parents and kinsfolk leave behind, whether it be little or much - a share ordained [by God].
Rashad Khalifa Women's Inheritance Rights 4:7 The men get a share of what the parents and the relatives leave behind. The women too shall get a share of what the parents and relatives leave behind. Whether it is a small or a large inheritance, (the women must get) a definite share.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:7 Men get a share of what the parents and near relatives leave behind. Women get a share of what the parents and near relatives leave behind. Whether the inheritance is small or large, these shares have been ordained as a duty. 3
Transliteration 4:7 Lilrrijali naseebun mimmataraka alwalidani waal-aqraboona walilnnisa-inaseebun mimma taraka alwalidani waal-aqraboonamimma qalla minhu aw kathura naseeban mafroodan
A 4:7 للرجال نصيب مما ترك الولدان والاقربون وللنساء نصيب مما ترك الولدان والاقربون مما قل منه او كثر نصيبا مفروضا
Edip-Layth 4:8 If the distribution is attended by the relatives, the orphans, and the needy, then you shall give them part of it and say to them a kind saying.
The Monotheist Group 4:8 And if the distribution is attended by the relatives and the orphans and the needy, then you shall give them part of it and say to them a kind saying.
Muhammad Asad 4:8 And when [other] near of kin and orphans and needy persons7 are present at the distribution [of inheritance], give them something thereof for their sustenance, and speak unto them in a kindly way.
Rashad Khalifa 4:8 During distribution of the inheritances, if relatives, orphans, and needy persons are present, you shall give them therefrom, and treat them kindly.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:8 If at the time of distribution of the inheritance, relatives, orphans, and the needy are present, give them from it and treat them kindly.
Transliteration 4:8 Wa-itha hadara alqismataoloo alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeenufaorzuqoohum minhu waqooloo lahum qawlan maAAroofan
A 4:8 واذا حضر القسمة اولوا القربى واليتمى والمسكين فارزقوهم منه وقولوا لهم قولا معروفا
Edip-Layth 4:9 What if it was them who had left behind a weak progeny? Would they not be concerned for them? Let them revere God and let them say what is appropriate.
The Monotheist Group 4:9 And what if it was them who had left behind them a weak progeny, would they not be concerned for them? Let them revere God and let them say what is appropriate.
Muhammad Asad 4:9 And let them stand in awe [of God], those [legal heirs] - who, if they [themselves] had to leave behind weak offspring, would feel fear on their account - and let them remain conscious of God, and let them speak [to the poor] in a just manner.
Rashad Khalifa 4:9 Those who are concerned about their own children, in case they leave them behind, shall observe GOD and be equitable.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:9 The distribution of inheritance must be done responsibly and according to law. Treat others, as you would like to be treated. You will never want injustice to be done to your children, if you leave them behind. In matters such as these, speak clearly and straight to the point.
Transliteration 4:9 Walyakhsha allatheena law tarakoo minkhalfihim thurriyyatan diAAafan khafooAAalayhim falyattaqoo Allaha walyaqooloo qawlan sadeedan
A 4:9 وليخش الذين لو تركوا من خلفهم ذرية ضعفا خافوا عليهم فليتقوا الله وليقولوا قولا سديدا
Edip-Layth 4:10 Those who consume the money of the orphans illicitly, in fact are consuming fire in their bellies, and they will end up in a blaze.
The Monotheist Group 4:10 Those who consume the money of the orphans illicitly, in fact they are consuming fire in their bellies, and they will endure the Blaze.
Muhammad Asad 4:10 Behold, those who sinfully devour the posses­sions of orphans but fill their bellies with fire: for [in the life to come] they will have to endure a blazing flame!
Rashad Khalifa 4:10 Those who consume the orphans' properties unjustly, eat fire into their bellies, and will suffer in Hell.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:10 Those who unjustly consume the wealth of orphans, are filling their bellies with fire and will be exposed to burning Flame.
Transliteration 4:10 Inna allatheena ya/kuloona amwalaalyatama thulman innamaya/kuloona fee butoonihim naran wasayaslawnasaAAeeran
A 4:10 ان الذين ياكلون امول اليتمى ظلما انما ياكلون فى بطونهم نارا وسيصلون سعيرا
Edip-Layth 4:11 God directs you regarding the inheritance of your children, "To the male shall be as that given to two females. If they are only females and more than two, then they will have two thirds of what is inherited. If there is only one female, then she will have one-half, and to his parents each one of them one sixth of what is inherited if he has children. If he has no children and his parents are the heirs, then to his mother is one third; if he has siblings then to his mother is one sixth. All after a will is carried through or a debt. Your parents and your children, you do not know which is closer to you in benefit, a directive from God, God is Knowledgeable, Wise."4
The Monotheist Group 4:11 God directs you regarding the inheritance of your children: "To the male shall be as that given to two females. If they are only females, two or more, then they will have two thirds of what is inherited. And if there is only one female, then she will have one half. And to his parents, each one of them shall have one sixth of what is inherited, if he has a child. If he has no child and his parents are the heirs, then to his mother is one third; if he has siblings then to his mother is one sixth. All after a will is carried through or a debt. Your parents and your children, you do not know which is closer to you in benefit, a directive from God, God is Knowledgeable, Wise."
Muhammad Asad 4:11 CONCERNING [the inheritance of] your children, God enjoins [this] upon you:8 The male shall have the equal of two females' share; but if there are more than two females, they shall have two-thirds of what [their parents] leave behind; and if there is only one daughter, she shall have one-half thereof. And as for the parents [of the deceased], each of them shall have one-sixth of what he leaves behind, in the event of his having [left] a child; but if he has left no child and his parents are his [only] heirs, then his mother shall have one-third; and if he has brothers and sisters, then his mother shall have one-sixth after [the deduction of] any bequest he may have made, or any debt [he may have incurred]. As for your parents and your children - you know not which of them is more deserving of benefit from you: [therefore this] ordinance from God. Verily, God is all-knowing, wise.
Rashad Khalifa If No Will Is Left 4:11 GOD decrees a will for the benefit of your children; the male gets twice the share of the female3. If the inheritors are only women, more than two, they get two-thirds of what is bequeathed. If only one daughter is left, she gets one-half. The parents of the deceased get one-sixth of the inheritance each, if the deceased has left any children. If he left no children, and his parents are the only inheritors, the mother gets one-third. If he has siblings, then the mother gets one-sixth. All this, after fulfilling any will the deceased has left, and after paying off all debts. When it comes to your parents and your children, you do not know which of them is really the best to you and the most beneficial. This is GOD's law. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:11 Preparing a will is a duty ordained (2:180-183). God decrees a will for the benefit of your children. (Since the sons have the responsibility to take care of the family, and daughters will be cared for by their husbands, or if unmarried, by other males in the family), sons get twice the share of daughters. - If two or more daughters are the only inheritors, they get two-thirds. -If only one daughter is left, she gets one-half. - If the deceased has left any children, then parents get one-sixth each. - If there are no children, and parents are the only heirs, the mother gets a third and the father gets two-thirds, since the male has the fiscal responsibility of the family. - If the deceased has left brothers or sisters, the mother gets one-sixth and the father gets one third. Remember, this distribution shall take place after fulfilling the will of the deceased and after paying off all debts. As for your parents and your children, you know not which of them is more deserving of benefit from you. Such is the Ordinance from God. Surely, God is All Knower, Wise.
Transliteration 4:11 Yooseekumu Allahu fee awladikumlilththakari mithlu haththialonthayayni fa-in kunna nisaan fawqa ithnatayni falahunnathulutha ma taraka wa-in kanat wahidatanfalaha alnnisfu wali-abawayhi likulli wahidinminhuma alssudusu mimma taraka in kanalahu waladun fa-in lam yakun lahu waladun wawarithahu abawahufali-ommihi alththuluthu fa-in kana lahu ikhwatunfali-ommihi alssudusu min baAAdi wasiyyatin yooseebiha aw daynin abaokum waabnaokum latadroona ayyuhum aqrabu lakum nafAAan fareedatan mina Allahiinna Allaha kana AAaleeman hakeeman
A 4:11 يوصيكم الله فى اولدكم للذكر مثل حظ الانثيين فان كن نساء فوق اثنتين فلهن ثلثا ما ترك وان كانت وحدة فلها النصف ولابويه لكل وحد منهما السدس مما ترك ان كان له ولد فان لم يكن له ولد وورثه ابواه فلامه الثلث فان كان له اخوة فلامه السدس من بعد وصية يوصى بها او دين ءاباوكم وابناوكم لا تدرون ايهم اقرب لكم نفعا فريضة من الله ان الله كان عليما حكيما
Edip-Layth 4:12 For you is half of what your wives leave behind if they have no children; but if they have a child then to you is one quarter of what they leave behind. All after a will is carried through or a debt. To them is one quarter of what you leave behind if you have no child; but if you have a child then to them is one eighth of what you leave behind. All after a will is carried through or a debt. If a man or a woman has no one, but has a brother or sister, then to each one of them is one sixth, but if they are more than this then they are to share in one third. All after a will is carried through or a debt, which does not cause harm. A directive from God, and God is Knowledgeable, Compassionate.5
The Monotheist Group 4:12 And for you is half of what your wives leave behind if they have no child; but if they have a child then to you is one quarter of what they leave behind. All after a will is carried through or a debt. And to them is one quarter of what you leave behind if you have no child; but if you have a child then to them is one eighth of what you leave behind. All after a will is carried through or a debt. And if a man or a woman has no one, but has a brother or sister, then to each one of them is one sixth, but if they are more than this then they are to share in one third. All after a will is carried through or a debt, which does not cause harm. A directive from God, and God is Knowledgeable, Compassionate.
Muhammad Asad 4:12 And you shall inherit one-half of what your wives leave behind, provided they have left no child; but if they have left a child, then you shall have one-quarter of what they leave behind, after [the deduction of] any bequest they may have made, or any debt [they may have incurred]. And your widows9 shall have one-quarter of what you leave behind, provided you have left no child; but if you have left a child, then they shall have one-eighth of what you leave behind, after [the deduction of] any bequest you may have made, or any debt [you may have incurred]. And if a man or a woman has no heir in the direct line, but has a brother or a sister, then each of these two shall inherit one-sixth; but if there are more than two,10 then they shall share in one-third [of the inheritance], after [the deduction of] any bequest that may have been made, or any debt [that may have been incurred], neither of which having been intended to harm [the heirs].11 [This is] an injunction from God: and God is all-knowing, forbearing.
Rashad Khalifa Inheritance For the Spouses 4:12 You get half of what your wives leave behind, if they had no children. If they had children, you get one-fourth of what they leave. All this, after fulfilling any will they had left, and after paying off all debts. They get one-fourth of what you leave behind, if you had no children. If you had children, they get one-eighth of what you bequeath. All this, after fulfilling any will you had left, and after paying off all debts. If the deceased man or woman was a loner, and leaves two siblings, male or female, each of them gets one-sixth of the inheritance. If there are more siblings, then they equally share one-third of the inheritance. All this, after fulfilling any will, and after paying off all debts, so that no one is hurt. This is a will decreed by GOD. GOD is Omniscient, Clement.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:12 Additionally: - If a couple had no children, the husband gets half of what the wife leaves behind. -If they had children, the husband gets one-fourth. - If they had no children, then the wives get one-fourth of what the husband leaves behind. -If they had children then the wife gets one-eighth. - If a man or a woman, whose inheritance is in question, was a loner, in the sense of leaving behind no ascendants or descendants, but leaves behind a sister and a brother, each of them gets one-sixth of the inheritance. If there are more than two siblings, they equally share one-third of the inheritance. The above applies after fully satisfying the will, and after paying off all debts, so that no one's rights are infringed upon. This is the will decreed by God Who is Knower, Clement. 4
Transliteration 4:12 Walakum nisfu ma taraka azwajukumin lam yakun lahunna waladun fa-in kana lahunna waladunfalakumu alrrubuAAu mimma tarakna min baAAdi wasiyyatinyooseena biha aw daynin walahunna alrrubuAAumimma taraktum in lam yakun lakum waladun fa-in kanalakum waladun falahunna alththumunu mimma taraktummin baAAdi wasiyyatin toosoona biha awdaynin wa-in kana rajulun yoorathu kalalatan awiimraatun walahu akhun aw okhtun falikulli wahidin minhumaalssudusu fa-in kanoo akthara min thalikafahum shurakao fee alththuluthi min baAAdi wasiyyatinyoosa biha aw daynin ghayra mudarrin wasiyyatanmina Allahi waAllahu AAaleemun haleemun
A 4:12 ولكم نصف ما ترك ازوجكم ان لم يكن لهن ولد فان كان لهن ولد فلكم الربع مما تركن من بعد وصية يوصين بها او دين ولهن الربع مما تركتم ان لم يكن لكم ولد فان كان لكم ولد فلهن الثمن مما تركتم من بعد وصية توصون بها او دين وان كان رجل يورث كللة او امراة وله اخ او اخت فلكل وحد منهما السدس فان كانوا اكثر من ذلك فهم شركاء فى الثلث من بعد وصية يوصى بها او دين غير مضار وصية من الله والله عليم حليم
Edip-Layth 4:13 These are God's limits, and whoever obeys God and His messenger, He will admit him to gardens with rivers flowing beneath, eternally abiding therein. This is the greatest victory.
The Monotheist Group 4:13 These are God's limits, and whoever obeys God and His messenger, He will admit him to estates with rivers flowing beneath, eternally abiding therein. This is the greatest victory.
Muhammad Asad 4:13 These are the bounds set by God. And whoever pays heed unto God and His Apostle, him will He bring into gardens through which running waters flow, therein to abide: and this is a triumph supreme.
Rashad Khalifa God Communicates With Us Through His Messenger 4:13 These are GOD's laws. Those who obey GOD and His messenger, He will admit them into gardens with flowing streams, wherein they abide forever. This is the greatest triumph.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:13 *
Transliteration 4:13 Tilka hudoodu Allahi waman yutiAAiAllaha warasoolahu yudkhilhu jannatin tajree min tahtihaal-anharu khalideena feeha wathalikaalfawzu alAAatheemu
A 4:13 تلك حدود الله ومن يطع الله ورسوله يدخله جنت تجرى من تحتها الانهر خلدين فيها وذلك الفوز العظيم
Edip-Layth 4:14 Whoever disobeys God and His messenger, and transgresses His limits, He will admit him to a fire in which he abides eternally, and he will have a humiliating retribution.
The Monotheist Group 4:14 And whoever disobeys God and His messenger, and transgresses His limits, He will admit him to a Fire in which he abides eternally, and he will have a humiliating retribution.
Muhammad Asad 4:14 And whoever rebels against God and His Apostle and transgresses His bounds, him will He commit unto fire, therein to abide; and shameful suffering awaits him.
Rashad Khalifa Health Quarantine 4:14 As for the one who disobeys GOD and His messenger, and transgresses His laws, He will admit him into Hell, wherein he abides forever. He has incurred a shameful retribution.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:14 Conversely, those who disobey God and the messenger by going against the Divine System established by the messenger, trespass the Boundaries of the Divine law and they will be admitted into an everlasting fire of humiliation and regret.
Transliteration 4:14 Waman yaAAsi Allahawarasoolahu wayataAAadda hudoodahu yudkhilhu narankhalidan feeha walahu AAathabun muheenun
A 4:14 ومن يعص الله ورسوله ويتعد حدوده يدخله نارا خلدا فيها وله عذاب مهين
Edip-Layth Quarantine for Prostitutes 4:15 The women who commit lewdness, you shall bring four witnesses over them from amongst you; if they bear witness, then you shall restrict them in the homes until death takes them, or God makes for them a way out.6
The Monotheist Group 4:15 And those of your women who commit lewdness, you shall bring four witnesses over them from amongst you; if they bear witness, then you shall restrict them in the homes until death terminates their lives, or God makes for them a way out.
Muhammad Asad 4:15 AND AS FOR those of your women who become guilty of immoral conduct, call upon four from among you who have witnessed their guilt; and if these bear witness thereto, confine the guilty women12 to their houses until death takes them away or God opens for them a way [through repentance].
Rashad Khalifa 4:15 Those who commit adultery among your women, you must have four witnesses against them, from among you. If they do bear witness, then you shall keep such women in their homes until they die, or until GOD creates an exit for them.4
Shabbir Ahmed 4:15 (Protection of honor and chastity for men and women, both, is the cornerstone of a virtuous society. 17:32, 4:24.) If any woman or a group of women spread sexual immorality or lewdness in the society, it is required that the appropriate court take four reliable witnesses. If their testimony corroborates with other evidence (12:26), confine them to their houses (since immorality is as contagious as good conduct). This confinement would be for an indefinite period, unless such women seek the way of God (such as repentance and reform or that the singles among them get honorably married). 6
Transliteration 4:15 Waallatee ya/teena alfahishatamin nisa-ikum faistashhidoo AAalayhinna arbaAAatanminkum fa-in shahidoo faamsikoohunna fee albuyooti hattayatawaffahunna almawtu aw yajAAala Allahu lahunnasabeelan
A 4:15 والتى ياتين الفحشة من نسائكم فاستشهدوا عليهن اربعة منكم فان شهدوا فامسكوهن فى البيوت حتى يتوفىهن الموت او يجعل الله لهن سبيلا
Edip-Layth 4:16 The two who commit it from amongst you, then you shall reprimand them. If they repent and amend, then leave them alone. God is Redeemer, Compassionate.7
The Monotheist Group 4:16 And the two men who commit it from amongst you, you shall trouble them. If they repent and amend, then leave them alone. God is Redeemer, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad 4:16 And punish [thus] both of the guilty parties;13 but if they both repent and mend their ways, leave them alone: for, behold, God is an acceptor of repentance, a dispenser of grace.14
Rashad Khalifa 4:16 The couple who commits adultery shall be punished. If they repent and reform, you shall leave them alone. GOD is Redeemer, Most Merciful.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:16 If the two of you spread such immorality or lewdness in the society, both of them shall be punished (as determined by the appropriate court of law). But if they repent and mend their ways, leave them alone. God is the Acceptor of repentance, Merciful. (This includes homosexuality, male and female.)
Transliteration 4:16 Waallathani ya/tiyanihaminkum faathoohuma fa-in taba waaslahafaaAAridoo AAanhuma inna Allaha kanatawwaban raheeman
A 4:16 والذان ياتينها منكم فاذوهما فان تابا واصلحا فاعرضوا عنهما ان الله كان توابا رحيما
Edip-Layth 4:17 God's acceptance of repentance is only for those who commit sin out of ignorance and then repent soon after; these will be forgiven by God, God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
The Monotheist Group 4:17 Repentance is only for those who commit sin out of ignorance and then repent soon after; these will be forgiven by God, God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
Muhammad Asad 4:17 Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of ignorance and then repent before their time runs out:15 and it is they unto whom God will turn again in His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise;
Rashad Khalifa Repentance 4:17 Repentance is acceptable by GOD from those who fall in sin out of ignorance, then repent immediately thereafter. GOD redeems them. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:17 God graciously accepts the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance, and then return quickly to the right conduct. God blesses them with mercy. He is the Knower, the Wise.
Transliteration 4:17 Innama alttawbatu AAalaAllahi lillatheena yaAAmaloona alssoo-abijahalatin thumma yatooboona min qareebin faola-ikayatoobu Allahu AAalayhim wakana AllahuAAaleeman hakeeman
A 4:17 انما التوبة على الله للذين يعملون السوء بجهلة ثم يتوبون من قريب فاولئك يتوب الله عليهم وكان الله عليما حكيما
Edip-Layth 4:18 There will be no repentance for those who commit sin until death comes upon one of them, then he says, "I repent now!" Nor there will be repentance for those who die while they are ingrates. To those We have prepared a painful retribution.8
The Monotheist Group 4:18 And there will be no repentance for those who commit sin until death comes upon one of them, then he says: "I repent now!", nor for those who die while they are disbelievers. To those We have prepared a painful retribution.
Muhammad Asad 4:18 whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say,16 "Behold, I now repent"; nor from those who die as deniers of the truth: it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.
Rashad Khalifa 4:18 Not acceptable is the repentance of those who commit sins until death comes to them, then say, "Now I repent." Nor is it acceptable from those who die as disbelievers. For these, we have prepared a painful retribution.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:18 The forgiveness is not for those who commit transgressions until death comes to one of them, and then he says, "I repent now." (They have no time to make amends.) Nor is the forgiveness for those who die as rejecters of truth. We have prepared an awful suffering for them.
Transliteration 4:18 Walaysati alttawbatu lillatheenayaAAmaloona alssayyi-ati hatta ithahadara ahadahumu almawtu qala inneetubtu al-ana wala allatheena yamootoonawahum kuffarun ola-ika aAAtadna lahum AAathabanaleeman
A 4:18 وليست التوبة للذين يعملون السيات حتى اذا حضر احدهم الموت قال انى تبت الن ولا الذين يموتون وهم كفار اولئك اعتدنا لهم عذابا اليما
Edip-Layth Treat Women Nicely and Appreciate them 4:19 O you who acknowledge, it is not lawful for you to inherit the women by force, nor that you become harsh with them to take away some of what you have given them, unless they commit a clear lewdness. Live with them in kindness. If you dislike them, then perhaps you may dislike something and God makes in it much good.9
The Monotheist Group 4:19 O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit the women by force, nor that you become harsh with them to take away some of what you have given them, unless they commit a clear lewdness. And live with them in kindness. If you dislike them, then perhaps you may dislike something and God makes in it much good.
Muhammad Asad 4:19 O YOU who have attained to faith! It is not lawful for you to [try to] become heirs to your wives [by holding onto them] against their will;17 and neither shall you keep them under constraint with a view to taking away anything of what you may have given them, unless it be that they have become guilty, in an obvious man­ner, of immoral conduct.18 And consort with your wives19 in a goodly manner; for if you dislike them, it may well be that you dislike something which God might yet make a source of20 abundant good.
Rashad Khalifa 4:19 O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit what the women leave behind, against their will. You shall not force them to give up anything you had given them, unless they commit a proven adultery. You shall treat them nicely. If you dislike them, you may dislike something wherein GOD has placed a lot of good.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:19 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! It is not lawful for you to force women into marrying or holding on to them in marriage against their will. Pressuring women to remain in wedlock by threatening to take away the marital gift is forbidden. A wife could forfeit the right to the marital gift only if she has indulged in clear lewdness. You shall treat your wives nicely. Even if you dislike them, it may happen that God has placed much good in what you have failed to realize.
Transliteration 4:19 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola yahillu lakum an tarithoo alnnisaakarhan wala taAAduloohunna litathhaboobibaAAdi ma ataytumoohunna illa anya/teena bifahishatin mubayyinatin waAAashiroohunnabialmaAAroofi fa-in karihtumoohunna faAAasa antakrahoo shay-an wayajAAala Allahu feehi khayran katheeran
A 4:19 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا يحل لكم ان ترثوا النساء كرها ولا تعضلوهن لتذهبوا ببعض ما ءاتيتموهن الا ان ياتين بفحشة مبينة وعاشروهن بالمعروف فان كرهتموهن فعسى ان تكرهوا شيا ويجعل الله فيه خيرا كثيرا
Edip-Layth 4:20 If you wish to replace one mate instead of another, and you have given one of them a large amount, then do not take anything from it. Would you take it by falsehood while it is clearly a sin?
The Monotheist Group 4:20 And if you wish to replace one wife instead of another, and you have given one of them a large amount, then do not take anything from it. Would you take it by falsehood while it is clearly a sin?
Muhammad Asad 4:20 But if you desire to give up a wife and to take another in her stead, do not take away anything of what you have given the first one, however much it may have been.21 Would you, perchance, take it away by slandering her and thus committing a manifest sin?22
Rashad Khalifa Protection for Women 4:20 If you wish to marry another wife, in place of your present wife, and you had given any of them a great deal, you shall not take back anything you had given her. Would you take it fraudulently, maliciously, and sinfully?
Shabbir Ahmed 4:20 If you wish to marry another wife in place of your present wife, and you have given her a great deal, you shall not take back anything. Would you take it back by way of slander, a transgression that will drag down your own 'self'?
Transliteration 4:20 Wa-in aradtumu istibdala zawjin makanazawjin waataytum ihdahunna qintaranfala ta/khuthoo minhu shay-an ata/khuthoonahubuhtanan wa-ithman mubeenan
A 4:20 وان اردتم استبدال زوج مكان زوج وءاتيتم احدىهن قنطارا فلا تاخذوا منه شيا اتاخذونه بهتنا واثما مبينا
Edip-Layth 4:21 How can you take it when you have become intimate with each other, and the women have taken from you a strong covenant?
The Monotheist Group 4:21 And how can you take it when you have become intimate with each other, and the women have taken from you a strong covenant.
Muhammad Asad 4:21 And how could you take it away after you have given yourselves to one another, and she has23 received a most solemn pledge from you?
Rashad Khalifa 4:21 How could you take it back, after you have been intimate with each other, and they had taken from you a solemn pledge?
Shabbir Ahmed 4:21 And how could you take the marital gift back from her after you have lived intimately with each other and after she has taken from you a very solemn pledge of the marital contract?
Transliteration 4:21 Wakayfa ta/khuthoonahu waqad afdabaAAdukum ila baAAdin waakhathnaminkum meethaqan ghaleethan
A 4:21 وكيف تاخذونه وقد افضى بعضكم الى بعض واخذن منكم ميثقا غليظا
Edip-Layth Incest Prohibited 4:22 Do not marry what your fathers had married from the women, except what has already been done. It is lewdness, abhorrence, and a bad path.
The Monotheist Group 4:22 And do not marry what your fathers had married from the women, except what has already been done. It is a lewdness, and an abhorrence, and a bad path.
Muhammad Asad 4:22 AND DO NOT marry women whom your fathers have previously married - although what is past is past:24 this, verily, is a shameful deed, and a hateful thing, and an evil way.
Rashad Khalifa Respect for the Father 4:22 Do not marry the women who were previously married to your fathers - existing marriages are exempted and shall not be broken - for it is a gross offense, and an abominable act.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:22 Do not marry women whom your fathers ever married except what has already happened. Doing such was certainly a shameful and abominable custom.
Transliteration 4:22 Wala tankihoo ma nakahaabaokum mina alnnisa-i illa maqad salafa innahu kana fahishatan wamaqtan wasaasabeelan
A 4:22 ولا تنكحوا ما نكح ءاباوكم من النساء الا ما قد سلف انه كان فحشة ومقتا وساء سبيلا
Edip-Layth 4:23 Forbidden for you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your fathers' sisters, your mothers' sisters, the daughters of your brother, and the daughters of your sister, your foster mothers who suckled you, your sisters from suckling, the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters residing in your homes from your wives which you have already consummated the marriage with; if you have not consummated the marriage then there is no sin upon you; and the wives of your sons that are from your seed, and that you join between two sisters except what has already been done. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
The Monotheist Group 4:23 Forbidden for you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your fathers sisters, and your mothers sisters, and the daughters of your brother, and the daughters of your sister, and your foster mothers who suckled you, and your sisters from suckling, and the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters residing in your homes from your wives which you have already consummated the marriage with; if you have not consummated the marriage then there is no sin upon you; and the wives of your sons that are from your seed, and that you join between two sisters except what has already been done. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad 4:23 Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your aunts paternal and maternal, and a brother's daughters, and a sister's daughters; and your milk-mothers, and your milk-sisters; and the mothers of your wives; and your step-daughters - who are your foster children - born of your wives with whom you have consummated your marriage; but if you have not consummated your marriage, you will incur no sin [by marrying their daughters]; and [forbidden to you are] the spouses of the sons who have sprung from your loins; and [you are forbidden] to have two sisters [as your wives] at one and the same time - but what is past is past:25 for, behold, God is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
Rashad Khalifa Incest Forbidden 4:23 Prohibited for you (in marriage) are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, the sisters of your fathers, the sisters of your mothers, the daughters of your brother, the daughters of your sister, your nursing mothers, the girls who nursed from the same woman as you, the mothers of your wives, the daughters of your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage - if the marriage has not been consummated, you may marry the daughter. Also prohibited for you are the women who were married to your genetic sons. Also, you shall not be married to two sisters at the same time - but do not break up existing marriages. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:23 The following women are prohibited for you in marriage: Your mothers, daughters, sisters, father's sisters, mother's sisters, brother's daughters, sister's daughters, foster-mothers who have ever nursed you, foster-sisters, your wives' mothers, your step-daughters, unless you have divorced their mother without being intimate with her. Also forbidden are women who have ever been the wives of your sons. You are not allowed to keep two sisters in wedlock at one time except what has already happened in the past. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Transliteration 4:23 Hurrimat AAalaykum ommahatukumwabanatukum waakhawatukum waAAammatukum wakhalatukumwabanatu al-akhi wabanatu al-okhti waommahatukumuallatee ardaAAnakum waakhawatukum mina alrradaAAatiwaommahatu nisa-ikum waraba-ibukumu allateefee hujoorikum min nisa-ikumu allateedakhaltum bihinna fa-in lam takoonoo dakhaltum bihinna falajunaha AAalaykum wahala-ilu abna-ikumuallatheena min aslabikum waan tajmaAAoobayna al-okhtayni illa ma qad salafa inna Allahakana ghafooran raheeman
A 4:23 حرمت عليكم امهتكم وبناتكم واخوتكم وعمتكم وخلتكم وبنات الاخ وبنات الاخت وامهتكم التى ارضعنكم واخوتكم من الرضعة وامهت نسائكم وربئبكم التى فى حجوركم من نسائكم التى دخلتم بهن فان لم تكونوا دخلتم بهن فلا جناح عليكم وحلئل ابنائكم الذين من اصلبكم وان تجمعوا بين الاختين الا ما قد سلف ان الله كان غفورا رحيما
Edip-Layth 4:24 The women who are already married, except those whom you have contractual rights, God's book is over you; and permitted for you is what is beyond this, if you are seeking with your money to be protected and not for illicit sex. As for those whom you have already had joy with them, then you shall give them their wage as an obligation. There is no sin upon you for what you agree to after the obligation. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.10
The Monotheist Group 4:24 And the already protected from the women, except those committed to you by oath; God's scripture is over you; and permitted for you is what is beyond this, if you are seeking with your money to be protected and not for illicit sex. As for those whom you have already had joy with, then you shall give them their dowries as an obligation. There is no sin upon you for what you agree to after the obligation. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
Muhammad Asad 4:24 And [forbidden to you are] all married women other than those whom you rightfully possess [through wedlock]:26 this is God's ordinance, binding upon you. But lawful to you are all [women] beyond these, for you to seek out, offering them of your possessions,27 taking them in honest wedlock, and not in fornication. And unto those with whom you desire to enjoy marriage, you shall give the dowers due to them; but you will incur no sin if, after [having agreed upon] this lawful due, you freely agree with one another upon anything [else]:28 behold, God is indeed all-knowing, wise.
Rashad Khalifa Mutual Attraction And Dowry Required 4:24 Also prohibited are the women who are already married, unless they flee their disbelieving husbands who are at war with you. These are GOD's commandments to you. All other categories are permitted for you in marriage, so long as you pay them their due dowries. You shall maintain your morality, by not committing adultery. Thus, whoever you like among them, you shall pay them the dowry decreed for them. You commit no error by mutually agreeing to any adjustments to the dowry. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:24 Also forbidden to you are women who are already married, except those women who have sought asylum with you against their disbelieving husbands at war with you (60:10). This is God's Ordinance binding upon you. All other categories are permitted for you in marriage, with mutual consent, as confirmed by giving her a generous marital gift or dowry. You shall seek them in honest wedlock and let marriage be a fortress of chastity for the husband and wife. You shall maintain morality and go not near adultery (17:32). You like to marry women for a better quality of life, so give them their portions as a duty. And there is nothing wrong in adjusting the sum with mutual agreement after the duty has been done. These laws are given to you by God, the Knower, the Wise.
Transliteration 4:24 Waalmuhsanatu mina alnnisa-iilla ma malakat aymanukum kitaba AllahiAAalaykum waohilla lakum ma waraa thalikuman tabtaghoo bi-amwalikum muhsineena ghayra musafiheenafama istamtaAAtum bihi minhunna faatoohunnaojoorahunna fareedatan wala junaha AAalaykumfeema taradaytum bihi min baAAdi alfareedatiinna Allaha kana AAaleeman hakeeman
A 4:24 والمحصنت من النساء الا ما ملكت ايمنكم كتب الله عليكم واحل لكم ما وراء ذلكم ان تبتغوا بامولكم محصنين غير مسفحين فما استمتعتم به منهن فاتوهن اجورهن فريضة ولا جناح عليكم فيما ترضيتم به من بعد الفريضة ان الله كان عليما حكيما
Edip-Layth 4:25 Whoever of you cannot afford to marry the acknowledging independent women, then from those young women whom you have contractual rights. God is more aware of your faith; you are equal to one another. You shall marry them with the permission of their family and give them their wage in kindness, to be protected, not for illicit sex or for taking lovers. If they become protected, then any of them who come with lewdness shall have half the punishment of what is for the independent women of the retribution. This is for those who fear hardship from among you. But if you are patient it is better for you, and God is Forgiver, Compassionate.12
The Monotheist Group 4:25 And whoever of you cannot afford to marry the believing protected women, then from those committed to you by oath of the believing young women. God is more aware of your faith, some of you to each other. You shall marry them with the permission of their parents and give them their dowries in kindness; to be protected, not for illicit sex or taking lovers. If they become protected, then any of them who comes with lewdness shall have half the punishment of what is for the protected women. This is for those who fear hardship from among you. But if you are patient it is better for you, and God is Forgiver, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad 4:25 And as for those of you who, owing to cir­cumstances, are not in a position29 to marry free believing women, [let them marry] believing maidens from among those whom you rightfully possess.30 And God knows all about your faith; each one of you is an issue of the other.31 Marry them, then, with their people's leave, and give them their dowers in an equitable manner - they being women who give themselves in honest wedlock, not in fornication, nor as secret love-companions.32 And when they are married, and thereafter become guilty of immoral conduct, they shall be liable to half the penalty to which free married women are liable.33 This [permission to marry slave-girls applies] to those of you who fear lest they stumble into evil.34 But it is for your own good to persevere in patience [and to abstain from such marriages]: and God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
Rashad Khalifa 4:25 Those among you who cannot afford to marry free believing women, may marry believing slave women. GOD knows best about your belief, and you are equal to one another, as far as belief is concerned. You shall obtain permission from their guardians before you marry them, and pay them their due dowry equitably. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret lovers. Once they are freed through marriage, if they commit adultery, their punishment shall be half of that for the free women. Marrying a slave shall be a last resort for those unable to wait. To be patient is better for you. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:25 (As the Qur'an is being revealed to you O Messenger, the emancipation of the slaves, male and female, is steadily taking place.) A man among you who cannot find a free believing woman willing to marry him, should have no hesitation in asking the hand of a believing maiden from her guardian. God knows your beliefs and reiterates that all human beings are equal in the sight of God (17:70). Pay them a generous marital gift in kindness. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret relations. Since their upbringing has been deficient in the environment of slavery, their punishment will be half that of the free women, if they commit indecency after marriage. The permission to marry a bonded woman is for him who fears he might commit sin. The better recourse is freeing her first from bondage. Men and women must be patient and exercise self-control while waiting to get married. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Transliteration 4:25 Waman lam yastatiAA minkum tawlanan yankiha almuhsanati almu/minatifamin ma malakat aymanukum min fatayatikumualmu/minati waAllahu aAAlamu bi-eemanikumbaAAdukum min baAAdin fainkihoohunnabi-ithni ahlihinna waatoohunna ojoorahunna bialmaAAroofimuhsanatin ghayra masafihatin walamuttakhithati akhdanin fa-itha ohsinnafa-in atayna bifahishatin faAAalayhinna nisfu maAAala almuhsanati mina alAAathabi thalikaliman khashiya alAAanata minkum waan tasbiroo khayrunlakum waAllahu ghafoorun raheemun
A 4:25 ومن لم يستطع منكم طولا ان ينكح المحصنت المومنت فمن ما ملكت ايمنكم من فتيتكم المومنت والله اعلم بايمنكم بعضكم من بعض فانكحوهن باذن اهلهن وءاتوهن اجورهن بالمعروف محصنت غير مسفحت ولا متخذت اخدان فاذا احصن فان اتين بفحشة فعليهن نصف ما على المحصنت من العذاب ذلك لمن خشى العنت منكم وان تصبروا خير لكم والله غفور رحيم
Edip-Layth 4:26 God wants to make clear for you and guide you to the ways of those before you, and pardon you, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
The Monotheist Group 4:26 God wants to make clear for you and guide you to the ways of those before you, and pardon you, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
Muhammad Asad 4:26 God wants to make [all this] clear unto you, and to guide you onto the [righteous] ways of life of those who preceded you,35 and to turn unto you in His mercy: for God is all-knowing, wise.
Rashad Khalifa 4:26 GOD wills to explain things for you, and to guide you through past precedents, and to redeem you. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:26 God will explain to you and guide you by the examples of those who were before you, and turn to you (in mercy). God is Knower, Wise.
Transliteration 4:26 Yureedu Allahu liyubayyina lakumwayahdiyakum sunana allatheena min qablikum wayatoobaAAalaykum waAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
A 4:26 يريد الله ليبين لكم ويهديكم سنن الذين من قبلكم ويتوب عليكم والله عليم حكيم
Edip-Layth 4:27 God wants to pardon you, but those who follow their lusts want that you would be diverted into a great diversion.
The Monotheist Group 4:27 And God wants to pardon you, but those who follow desires want that you would be diverted into a great diversion.
Muhammad Asad 4:27 And God wants to turn unto you in His mercy, whereas those who follow [only] their own lusts want you to drift far away from the right path.36
Rashad Khalifa God's Mercy 4:27 GOD wishes to redeem you, while those who pursue their lusts wish that you deviate a great deviation.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:27 God turns to you in kindness, while those who follow their desires want that you drift far away from the right path. 7
Transliteration 4:27 WaAllahu yureedu an yatoobaAAalaykum wayureedu allatheena yattabiAAoona alshshahawatian tameeloo maylan AAatheeman
A 4:27 والله يريد ان يتوب عليكم ويريد الذين يتبعون الشهوت ان تميلوا ميلا عظيما
Edip-Layth 4:28 God wants to make easy for you; and humankind was created weak.13
The Monotheist Group 4:28 God wants to make easy for you; and mankind was created weak.
Muhammad Asad 4:28 God wants to lighten your burdens:37 for man has been created weak.
Rashad Khalifa 4:28 GOD wishes to lighten your burden, for the human being is created weak.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:28 God wishes to lighten your burden with His guidance. The human being is created weak, having the tendency to fall victim to his own selfish desires. 8
Transliteration 4:28 Yureedu Allahu an yukhaffifa AAankumwakhuliqa al-insanu daAAeefan
A 4:28 يريد الله ان يخفف عنكم وخلق الانسن ضعيفا
Edip-Layth Avoid Major Sins 4:29 O you who acknowledge, do not consume your money between you unjustly, except through a trade, which is mutually agreed by you. Do not kill yourselves; God is Compassionate towards you.
The Monotheist Group 4:29 O you who believe, do not consume your money between you unjustly, except through a trade which is mutually agreed by you. And do not kill yourselves; God is Merciful towards you.
Muhammad Asad 4:29 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not devour one another's possessions wrongfully - not even by way of trade based on mutual agreement38 - and do not destroy one another: for, behold, God is indeed a dispenser of grace unto you!
Rashad Khalifa Murder, Suicide, and Illicit Gains Prohibited 4:29 O you who believe, do not consume each others' properties illicitly - only mutually acceptable transactions are permitted. You shall not kill yourselves. GOD is Merciful towards you.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:29 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not consume one another's wealth wrongfully, not even by way of trade based on mutual agreement. Do not destroy one another, and thus do not destroy your own 'self'. Certainly, God has been Merciful to you." 9
Transliteration 4:29 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola ta/kuloo amwalakum baynakum bialbatiliilla an takoona tijaratan AAan taradinminkum wala taqtuloo anfusakum inna Allaha kanabikum raheeman
A 4:29 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تاكلوا امولكم بينكم بالبطل الا ان تكون تجرة عن تراض منكم ولا تقتلوا انفسكم ان الله كان بكم رحيما
Edip-Layth 4:30 Whoever does so out of animosity and transgression, We will cast him into a fire; and this for God is very easy.
The Monotheist Group 4:30 And whoever does so out of animosity and transgression, We will cast him to a Fire; and this for God is very easy.
Muhammad Asad 4:30 And as for him who does this with malicious intent and a will to do wrong39 - him shall We, in time, cause to endure [suffering through] fire: for this is indeed easy for God.
Rashad Khalifa 4:30 Anyone who commits these transgressions, maliciously and deliberately, we will condemn him to Hell. This is easy for GOD to do.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:30 Whoever does that through aggression and injustice, We shall soon cast him into the fire. And it is easy for God.
Transliteration 4:30 Waman yafAAal thalika AAudwananwathulman fasawfa nusleehi naran wakanathalika AAala Allahi yaseeran
A 4:30 ومن يفعل ذلك عدونا وظلما فسوف نصليه نارا وكان ذلك على الله يسيرا
Edip-Layth 4:31 If you avoid the major sins that you are forbidden against, then We will cancel your existing sins and admit you to a generous entrance.
The Monotheist Group 4:31 If you avoid the major sins that you are forbidden against, then We will cancel your existing sins and admit you to a generous entrance.
Muhammad Asad 4:31 If you avoid the great sins, which you have been enjoined to shun, We shall efface your [minor] bad deeds, and shall cause you to enter an abode of glory.40
Rashad Khalifa 4:31 If you refrain from committing the gross sins that are prohibited for you, we will remit your sins, and admit you an honorable admittance.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:31 If you refrain from the great transgressions that you have been forbidden to do, We shall remit your misdeeds and admit you through a gate of honor (in this world and in the Hereafter).
Transliteration 4:31 In tajtaniboo kaba-ira matunhawna AAanhu nukaffir AAankum sayyi-atikum wanudkhilkummudkhalan kareeman
A 4:31 ان تجتنبوا كبائر ما تنهون عنه نكفر عنكم سياتكم وندخلكم مدخلا كريما
Edip-Layth Each Gender Has Own Qualities 4:32 Do not envy what God has favored some of you over others. For the men is a portion of what they gained, and for the women is a portion of what they gained. Ask God from His favor, God is knowledgeable over all things.
The Monotheist Group 4:32 And do not envy what God has favored some of you over others. For the men is a portion of what they gained, and for the women is a portion of what they gained. And ask God from His favor, God is knowledgeable over all things.
Muhammad Asad 4:32 Hence, do not covet the bounties which God has bestowed more abundantly on some of you than on others. Men shall have a benefit from what they earn, and women shall have a benefit from what they earn. Ask, therefore, God [to give you] out of His bounty: behold, God has indeed full knowledge of everything.
Rashad Khalifa Men and Women Endowed With Unique Qualities 4:32 You shall not covet the qualities bestowed upon each other by GOD; the men enjoy certain qualities, and the women enjoy certain qualities. You may implore GOD to shower you with His grace. GOD is fully aware of all things.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:32 Do not covet the bounties (and qualities) that God has bestowed more abundantly on some of you than on others. Men shall have a portion from what they earn, and women shall have a portion from what they earn. Therefore, seek out of God's bounty (to the best of your abilities). God is a Witness to everything. 10
Transliteration 4:32 Wala tatamannaw ma faddalaAllahu bihi baAAdakum AAala baAAdinlilrrijali naseebun mimma iktasaboowalilnnisa-i naseebun mimma iktasabnawais-aloo Allaha min fadlihi inna Allahakana bikulli shay-in AAaleeman
A 4:32 ولا تتمنوا ما فضل الله به بعضكم على بعض للرجال نصيب مما اكتسبوا وللنساء نصيب مما اكتسبن وسلوا الله من فضله ان الله كان بكل شىء عليما
Edip-Layth 4:33 For each We have made inheritors for what was left behind by the parents and the relatives. Those whom are dependent on you, you shall give them their portion. God is witness over all things.
The Monotheist Group 4:33 And for each We have made inheritors for what was left behind by the parents and the relatives. And those pledged by your oath, you shall give them their portion. God is witness over all things.
Muhammad Asad 4:33 And unto everyone have We appointed heirs to what he may leave behind: parents, and near kinsfolk, and those to whom you have pledged your troth41 give them, therefore, their share. Behold, God is indeed a witness unto everything.
Rashad Khalifa Do Not Object to the Inheritance Laws Proposed by God 4:33 For each of you, we have designated shares from the inheritance left by the parents and the relatives. Also those related to you through marriage, you shall give them their due share. GOD witnesses all things.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:33 We have ordained the writing of will, and for each of you are the designated shares in the property left by the parents and the relatives. As for those to whom you have solemnly pledged, give them in your life. God is Witness over all things and events. 11
Transliteration 4:33 Walikullin jaAAalna mawaliyamimma taraka alwalidani waal-aqraboonawaallatheena AAaqadat aymanukum faatoohumnaseebahum inna Allaha kana AAalakulli shay-in shaheedan
A 4:33 ولكل جعلنا مولى مما ترك الولدان والاقربون والذين عقدت ايمنكم فاتوهم نصيبهم ان الله كان على كل شىء شهيدا
Edip-Layth In Case of Disloyalty 4:34 The men are to support the women by what God has gifted them over one another and for what they spend of their money. The reformed women are devotees and protectors of privacy what God has protected. As for those women from whom you fear disloyalty, then you shall advise them, abandon them in the bedchamber, and separate them; if they obey you, then do not seek a way over them; God is High, Great.14
The Monotheist Group 4:34 The men are to support the women by what God has bestowed on them over one another and for what they spend of their money. The upright women are dutiful; keeping private the personal matters for what God keeps watch over. As for those women from whom you fear desertion, then you shall advise them, and abandon them in the bedchamber, and separate from them. If they respond to you, then do not seek a way over them; God is High, Great.
Muhammad Asad 4:34 MEN SHALL take full care of women with the bounties which God has bestowed more abundantly on the former than on the latter,42 and with what they may spend out of their possessions. And the right­eous women are the truly devout ones, who guard the intimacy which God has [ordained to be] guar­ded.43 And as for those women whose ill-will44 you have reason to fear, admonish them [first]; then leave them alone in bed; then beat them;45 and if thereupon they pay you heed, do not seek to harm them. Behold, God is indeed most high, great!
Rashad Khalifa Do Not Beat Your Wife 4:34 The men are made responsible for the women, 8 and GOD has endowed them with certain qualities, and made them the bread earners. The righteous women will cheerfully accept this arrangement, since it is GOD's commandment, and honor their husbands during their absence. If you experience rebellion from the women, you shall first talk to them, then (you may use negative incentives like) deserting them in bed, then you may (as a last alternative) beat them. If they obey you, you are not permitted to transgress against them. GOD is Most High, Supreme.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:34 Men are the protectors and supporters of women. They shall take full care of women with what they spend of their wealth. God has made men to excel in some areas and women to excel in some areas. Men should ensure that women are able to stand at their feet in the society. So, righteous women are obedient to God's Ordinances and guard the moral values even in privacy, the values that God has commanded to be guarded. If you experience ill-treatment from them, apprise them of possible consequences. Next, leave them in their resting places, but keep admonishing them with examples. If they pay heed to you, do not seek a way against them. God is Most High, Great. 12
Transliteration 4:34 Alrrijalu qawwamoonaAAala alnnisa-i bima faddalaAllahu baAAdahum AAala baAAdin wabimaanfaqoo min amwalihim faalssalihatu qanitatunhafithatun lilghaybi bima hafithaAllahu waallatee takhafoonanushoozahunna faAAithoohunna waohjuroohunnafee almadajiAAi waidriboohunna fa-in ataAAnakumfala tabghoo AAalayhinna sabeelan inna Allaha kanaAAaliyyan kabeeran
A 4:34 الرجال قومون على النساء بما فضل الله بعضهم على بعض وبما انفقوا من امولهم فالصلحت قنتت حفظت للغيب بما حفظ الله والتى تخافون نشوزهن فعظوهن واهجروهن فى المضاجع واضربوهن فان اطعنكم فلا تبغوا عليهن سبيلا ان الله كان عليا كبيرا
Edip-Layth 4:35 If you fear a split between them, then send a judge from his family and a judge from hers. If they want to reconcile, then God will bring them together. God is Knowledgeable, Ever-aware.15
The Monotheist Group 4:35 And if you fear a permanent rift between them, then send a judge from his family and a judge from hers. If they want to reconcile, then God will bring them together. God is Knowledgeable, Expert.
Muhammad Asad 4:35 And if you have reason to fear that a breach might occur between a [married] couple, appoint an arbiter from among his people and an arbiter from among her people; if they both want to set things aright, God may bring about their reconciliation. Be­hold, God is indeed all-knowing, aware.
Rashad Khalifa Marriage Arbitration 4:35 If a couple fears separation, you shall appoint an arbitrator from his family and an arbitrator from her family; if they decide to reconcile, GOD will help them get together. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:35 (Families and communities must adopt a proactive approach regarding a husband and a wife in discord.) If you fear a breach between the two of them (husband and wife), appoint two arbiters, one from his family and one from her family. If they decide to reconcile, God will help them get together. Surely, God is Knower, Aware. 13
Transliteration 4:35 Wa-in khiftum shiqaqa baynihimafaibAAathoo hakaman min ahlihi wahakaman minahliha in yureeda islahan yuwaffiqiAllahu baynahuma inna Allaha kanaAAaleeman khabeeran
A 4:35 وان خفتم شقاق بينهما فابعثوا حكما من اهله وحكما من اهلها ان يريدا اصلحا يوفق الله بينهما ان الله كان عليما خبيرا
Edip-Layth 4:36 Serve God and do not set up anything with Him, and be kind to the parents, and the relatives, and the needy, and the neighbor who is of kin, and the neighbor next door, and close friend, and the traveler, and those with whom you have contractual rights. God does not like the arrogant, the boastful.16
The Monotheist Group 4:36 And serve God and do not set up anything with Him, and be kind to the parents, and the relatives, and the needy, and the neighbor who is of kin, and the neighbor next door, and the friend far away, and the traveler, and those committed to you by oath. God does not like the arrogant, the boastful.
Muhammad Asad 4:36 AND WORSHIP God [alone], and do not ascribe divinity, in any way, to aught beside Him.46 And do good unto your parents, and near of kin, and unto orphans, and the needy, and the neighbour from among your own people, and the neighbour who is a stranger,47 and the friend by your side, and the wayfarer, and those whom you rightfully possess.48 Verily, God does not love any of those who, full of self-conceit, act in a boastful manner;
Rashad Khalifa Major Commandments 4:36 You shall worship GOD alone - do not associate anything with Him. You shall regard the parents, the relatives, the orphans, the poor, the related neighbor, the unrelated neighbor, the close associate, the traveling alien, and your servants. GOD does not like the arrogant show-offs.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:36 Obey God and associate no partner with Him! -Treat kindly your parents, relatives, -The orphans, -And those who have been left alone in the society. -Take care of the needy, -The disabled, - Those whose hard earned income is insufficient to meet their needs, -And those whose businesses have stalled, -And those who have lost their jobs. -You shall treat kindly your related neighbors, -And unrelated neighbors, -Companions by your side in public gatherings, -Or public transportation. -Be generous to the needy wayfarer, -the homeless son of the street, -and the one who reaches you in a destitute condition. - Be nice to people who work under your care. God does not love the proud and boastful.
Transliteration 4:36 WaoAAbudoo Allaha walatushrikoo bihi shay-an wabialwalidayni ihsananwabithee alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeeniwaaljari thee alqurba waaljarialjunubi waalssahibi bialjanbi waibnialssabeeli wama malakat aymanukum inna Allahala yuhibbu man kana mukhtalan fakhooran
A 4:36 واعبدوا الله ولا تشركوا به شيا وبالولدين احسنا وبذى القربى واليتمى والمسكين والجار ذى القربى والجار الجنب والصاحب بالجنب وابن السبيل وما ملكت ايمنكم ان الله لا يحب من كان مختالا فخورا
Edip-Layth Philanthropy and God's Justice 4:37 Those who are stingy and order the people to stinginess, and they conceal what God has given them from His bounty. We have prepared for these ingrates a painful retribution.
The Monotheist Group 4:37 Those who are stingy and order the people to stinginess, and they conceal what God has given them from His bounty. We have prepared for these disbelievers a painful retribution.
Muhammad Asad 4:37 [nor] those who are niggardly, and bid others to be niggardly, and conceal whatever God has bestowed upon them out of His bounty; and so We have readied shameful suffering for all who thus deny the truth.
Rashad Khalifa 4:37 The ones who are stingy, exhort the people to be stingy, and conceal what GOD has bestowed upon them from His bounties. We have prepared for the disbelievers a shameful retribution.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:37 Those who are stingy and advise others to be stingy, and hide what God has given them of His bounty, for such ungrateful disbelievers We have prepared a humiliating punishment.
Transliteration 4:37 Allatheena yabkhaloona waya/muroona alnnasabialbukhli wayaktumoona ma atahumuAllahu min fadlihi waaAAtadna lilkafireenaAAathaban muheenan
A 4:37 الذين يبخلون ويامرون الناس بالبخل ويكتمون ما ءاتىهم الله من فضله واعتدنا للكفرين عذابا مهينا
Edip-Layth 4:38 Those who spend their money to show-off to the people, and they do not acknowledge God or the Last day. Whoever has the devil as his companion, then what a miserable companion!
The Monotheist Group 4:38 And those who spend their money to show-off to the people, and they do not believe in God or the Last Day. And whoever has the devil as his companion, then what a miserable companion!
Muhammad Asad 4:38 And [God does not love] those who spend their possessions on others [only] to be seen and praised by men, the while they believe neither in God nor in the Last Day; and he who has Satan for a soul-mate, how evil a soul-mate has he!49
Rashad Khalifa 4:38 They give money to charity only to show off, while disbelieving in GOD and the Last Day. If one's companion is the devil, that is the worst companion.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:38 They give money to charity only to show off, and do not believe in God and the Last Day. Such people have taken Satan, their selfish desires, as their intimate companion. What a terrible companion it is!
Transliteration 4:38 Waallatheena yunfiqoona amwalahumri-aa alnnasi wala yu/minoona biAllahiwala bialyawmi al-akhiri waman yakuni alshshaytanulahu qareenan fasaa qareenan
A 4:38 والذين ينفقون امولهم رئاء الناس ولا يومنون بالله ولا باليوم الءاخر ومن يكن الشيطن له قرينا فساء قرينا
Edip-Layth 4:39 What would bother them if they acknowledged God and the Last day and spent from God's provisions? God is aware of them.
The Monotheist Group 4:39 What would bother them if they believed in God and the Last Day and spent from God's provisions? God is aware of them.
Muhammad Asad 4:39 And what would they have to fear50 if they would but believe in God and the Last Day, and spend [in His way] out of what God has granted them as sustenance - since God has indeed full knowledge of them?
Rashad Khalifa 4:39 Why do they not believe in GOD and the Last Day, and give from GOD's provisions to them? GOD is fully aware of them.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:39 What do they have to fear if they believe in God and the Last Day and spend of what God has given them? God is ever Aware of them.
Transliteration 4:39 Wamatha AAalayhim law amanoobiAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiriwaanfaqoo mimma razaqahumu Allahu wakana Allahubihim AAaleeman
A 4:39 وماذا عليهم لو ءامنوا بالله واليوم الءاخر وانفقوا مما رزقهم الله وكان الله بهم عليما
Edip-Layth 4:40 Indeed, God does not wrong an atom's weight; and if it is good He will double it. He grants from Himself a great reward.
The Monotheist Group 4:40 Indeed, God does not wrong an atom's weight; and if it is good He will double it. And He grants from Himself a great reward.
Muhammad Asad 4:40 Verily, God does not wrong [anyone] by as much as an atom's weight; and if there be a good deed, He will multiply it, and will bestow out of His grace51 a mighty reward.
Rashad Khalifa Divine Justice 4:40 GOD does not inflict an atom's weight of injustice. On the contrary, He multiplies the reward manifold for the righteous work, and grants from Him a great recompense.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:40 God wrongs not anyone even the weight of an atom; and He multiplies a good deed, and from His Own Presence grants a great reward.
Transliteration 4:40 Inna Allaha la yathlimumithqala tharratin wa-in taku hasanatan yudaAAifhawayu/ti min ladunhu ajran AAatheeman
A 4:40 ان الله لا يظلم مثقال ذرة وان تك حسنة يضعفها ويوت من لدنه اجرا عظيما
Edip-Layth 4:41 How is it then when We bring forth from every nation a witness, and bring you as a witness over these?17
The Monotheist Group 4:41 How is it then when We bring forth from every nation a witness, and bring you as a witness over these?
Muhammad Asad 4:41 How, then, [will the sinners fare on Judgment Day,] when We shall bring forward witnesses from within every community,52 and bring thee [O Prophet] as witness against them?
Rashad Khalifa 4:41 Thus, when the day (of judgment) comes, we will call upon a witness from each community, and you (the messenger) will serve as a witness among these people.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:41 How will it be with them when (on the Resurrection Day) We bring from every community a witness (their prophet 10:47), and We bring you (O Messenger!), a witness among these people (your contemporaries)? 14
Transliteration 4:41 Fakayfa itha ji/na min kulliommatin bishaheedin waji/na bika AAala haola-ishaheedan
A 4:41 فكيف اذا جئنا من كل امة بشهيد وجئنا بك على هولاء شهيدا
Edip-Layth 4:42 On that day those who rejected and disobeyed the messenger will wish that the earth would swallow them; but they cannot hide anything said from God.
The Monotheist Group 4:42 On that Day those who rejected and disobeyed the messenger will wish that the Earth would swallow them; but they cannot hide anything said from God.
Muhammad Asad 4:42 Those who were bent on denying the truth and paid no heed to the Apostle will on that Day wish that the earth would swallow them:53 but they shall not [be able to] conceal from God anything that has happened.
Rashad Khalifa 4:42 On that day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the messenger will wish that they were level with the ground; not a single utterance will they be able to hide from GOD.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:42 On that Day, those who denied the truth and paid no heed to the messenger will wish that they were level with the ground. But not a single utterance or event could they hide from God.
Transliteration 4:42 Yawma-ithin yawaddu allatheenakafaroo waAAasawoo alrrasoola law tusawwabihimu al-ardu wala yaktumoona Allaha hadeethan
A 4:42 يومئذ يود الذين كفروا وعصوا الرسول لو تسوى بهم الارض ولا يكتمون الله حديثا
Edip-Layth Ablution for Contact prayer (sala) 4:43 O you who acknowledge, do not come near the contact prayer while you are drunk, until you know what you are saying. Nor if you have had intercourse, unless traveling, until you bathe. If you are ill, or traveling, or one of you come from the bathroom, or you had sexual contact with the women, and could not find water: then you shall seek clean soil and wipe your faces and hands. God is Pardoning, Forgiving.18
The Monotheist Group 4:43 O you who believe, do not approach the communion while you are intoxicated, until you know what you are saying. Nor if you have had intercourse, unless traveling, until you bathe. And if you are ill, or traveling, or one of you has excreted feces, or you had sexual contact with the women, and could not find water, then you shall select from the clean soil; you shall wipe your faces and hands. God is Pardoning, Forgiving.
Muhammad Asad 4:43 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not attempt to pray while you are in a state of drunkenness,54 [but wait] until you know what you are saying; nor yet [while you are] in a state requiring total ablution,55 until you have bathed - except if you are travelling [and are unable to do so]. But if you are ill, or are travelling, or have just satisfied a want of nature,56 or have cohabited with a woman, and can find no water - then take resort to pure dust, passing [there­with] lightly over your face and your hands.57 Behold, God is indeed an absolver of sins, much-forgiving.
Rashad Khalifa What Nullifies Ablution 4:43 O you who believe, do not observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) while intoxicated, so that you know what you are saying. Nor after sexual orgasm without bathing, unless you are on the road, traveling; if you are ill or traveling, or you had urinary or fecal-related excretion (such as gas), or contacted the women (sexually), and you cannot find water, you shall observe Tayammum (dry ablution) by touching clean dry soil, then wiping your faces and hands therewith. GOD is Pardoner, Forgiver.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:43 (Those who attain belief shall promptly establish the Divine System in the community, and the Masjid would assume the role of the community center. The believers will assemble in the Masjid for prayer, and to address social welfare and community action). O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Join not the Salaat congregation if your mind is beclouded for any reason, until you understand what you utter, else you might say senseless words that disturb the assembly. Physical cleanliness contributes to moral purity. So, take a bath after ceremonial impurity (post-coital state) If you are traveling, or are ill, or coming from the privy, and cannot find water, take a little clean sand or earth and lightly rub your faces and hands, before entering the Masjid. (This will help you prepare psychologically for the assembly (5:6). God pardons and absolves your imperfections.
Transliteration 4:43 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola taqraboo alssalata waantum sukarahatta taAAlamoo ma taqooloona walajunuban illa AAabiree sabeelin hattataghtasiloo wa-in kuntum marda aw AAala safarin awjaa ahadun minkum mina algha-iti aw lamastumualnnisaa falam tajidoo maan fatayammamoo saAAeedantayyiban faimsahoo biwujoohikum waaydeekuminna Allaha kana AAafuwwan ghafooran
A 4:43 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تقربوا الصلوة وانتم سكرى حتى تعلموا ما تقولون ولا جنبا الا عابرى سبيل حتى تغتسلوا وان كنتم مرضى او على سفر او جاء احد منكم من الغائط او لمستم النساء فلم تجدوا ماء فتيمموا صعيدا طيبا فامسحوا بوجوهكم وايديكم ان الله كان عفوا غفورا
Edip-Layth Taking the Words Out of Context 4:44 Did you not see those who have been given a portion of the book? They purchased straying, and they want you to stray from the path.
The Monotheist Group 4:44 Did you not see those who have been given a portion of the Scripture? They purchased straying, and they want you to stray from the path.
Muhammad Asad 4:44 ART THOU NOT aware of those who, having been granted their share of the divine writ,58 now barter it away for error, and want you [too] to lose your way?
Rashad Khalifa 4:44 Have you noted those who received a portion of the scripture, and how they choose to stray, and wish that you stray from the path?
Shabbir Ahmed 4:44 Have you noted those who were given a portion of the scripture but they purchased error for petty gains. (They fell for manmade books). They desire that you do the same and thus stray from the right path.
Transliteration 4:44 Alam tara ila allatheena ootoonaseeban mina alkitabi yashtaroona alddalalatawayureedoona an tadilloo alssabeela
A 4:44 الم تر الى الذين اوتوا نصيبا من الكتب يشترون الضللة ويريدون ان تضلوا السبيل
Edip-Layth 4:45 God is fully aware of your enemies; and God is enough as a supporter, and God is enough as a victor.
The Monotheist Group 4:45 And God is fully aware of your enemies; and God is enough as a supporter, and God is enough as a victor.
Muhammad Asad 4:45 But God knows best who are your enemies: and none can befriend as God does, and none can give succour as God does.
Rashad Khalifa 4:45 GOD knows best who your enemies are. GOD is the only Lord and Master. GOD is the only Supporter.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:45 God knows your enemies. (He shows you the way to protect and help yourselves.) As such, God is Sufficient as a Protecting Friend and God is Sufficient as a Helper.
Transliteration 4:45 WaAllahu aAAlamu bi-aAAda-ikumwakafa biAllahi waliyyan wakafa biAllahinaseeran
A 4:45 والله اعلم باعدائكم وكفى بالله وليا وكفى بالله نصيرا
End Notes
Edip-Layth - Quran: A Reformist Translation
Edip-Layth - End Note 1 (4:1)
Male and female, with little difference, share the same genetic program. The creation of the female from Adam's ribs found in Genesis 2:21-22 does not fit the Quranic description of creation. There is most likely a misunderstanding or deliberate distortion of an original word. On the Biblical account of the creation of Eve, the commentator Matthew Henry makes a beautiful comment, which might give us insight into the original meaning of the text: "This companion was taken from his side to signify that she was to be dear unto him as his own flesh. Not from his head, lest she should rule over him; nor from his feet, lest he should tyrannize over her; but from his side, to denote that species of equality which is to subsist in the marriage state." Ironically, many misogynistic Christian scholars interpreted the Biblical account of Eve's creation to belittle and condemn women. For instance, the 19th century Scottish Presbyterian scholar Easton provides the following information on the verse: "Through the subtle temptation of the serpent she violated the commandment of God by taking of the forbidden fruit, which she gave also unto her husband (1Timothy 2:13-15; 2Corinthians 11:3). When she gave birth to her first son, she said, "I have gotten a man from the Lord" (R.V., "I have gotten a man with the help of the Lord," Genesis 4:1). Thus she welcomed Cain, as some think, as if he had been the Promised One the 'Seed of the woman.'" See 2:36; 49:13.

Edip-Layth - End Note 2 (4:3)
Polygamy is allowed only to provide psychological, social and economic support for widows with orphans (See 4:127). Muhammad's practice of polygamy must have been in accordance with the condition to serve an important social service. Sure, physical attraction of widows might be one of the factors for marriage and there is nothing wrong with that. Those who could afford practicing polygamy, mentally and financially, should try hard to treat them equally, though 4:129 expresses the practical impossibly of attaining that ideal. Additionally, the consent of the first wife is necessary; otherwise, she can always seek divorce. It is clear that polygamy is not an ideal form of marriage and an unusual practice allowed for difficult times, such as a dramatic reduction in the male population during wartime. The age gap between marrying men and women creates a surplus of women who will never be able to find a monogamous partner. By a strict prohibition on polygamy, millions of young women are deprived from having a legitimate relationship with men. The only hope for millions of young girls is to get married with already divorced men, perhaps with kids, or to have a relationship born out of promiscuous sexual practices. The Western world does not prohibit polygamy since many males have sexual relationships with more than one woman at the same time. The only thing that modern societies do is deprive those women from the protection of law; they are there to be used, disposed of and recycled by men! The hypocrisy in the modern attitude becomes clear when homosexuality is defended on the pretext of "consenting adults," but the same standards are not afforded to the polygamists. The conditional permission for polygamy is for the psychological and financial protection of children and their widow mothers, in cases of war or natural disaster. Polygamy, according to the Old Testament, started with the seventh generation after Cain and continued as a common practice in the patriarchal age together with having concubines (Genesis 4:19; 6:2; 16:1-4; 22:21-24; 28:8-9; 29:23-30, etc.). However, the Old Testament also disapproves of polygamy (Deuteronomy 17:17). The Old Testament contains numerous exaggerated stories. One is about the number of Solomon's wives. The roundness of the numbers of wives and concubines and their total, the three numbers being perfectly round, indicate an intentional exaggeration. "And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines: and his wives turned away his heart” (1 Kings 11:3). It is highly plausible that the word "hundred" was inserted in the text by later scribes to damage the reputation of Solomon for some political agenda. The following verses depict Solomon as an evil person and idolater. The Quran neither accuses Solomon of indulging in a hedonistic sexual life nor of associating partners with God. Ironically, modern Christians are now bashing Solomon for not sticking to monogamy. To be politically correct, modern Christians do not hesitate to condemn the common practice of polygamy among Jews and their prophets. Contrary to the Quran, which exhorts muslims to help widows, the misogynistic Rabbinical teachings inserted into the Old Testament put them in the category of harlots, and finds them unworthy of marriage by the privileged class: priests (Leviticus 21:14). The expression Ma malakat aymanukum has been translated by most translations as "whom your right hands posses" or "captives" or "concubines." We translated this and similar expressions found in 4:3,24,25,36; 16:71; 23:6; 24:31,33,58; 30:28; 33:50,52,55; and 70:30, as "those with whom you have contractual rights." These were the wives of the enemy combatants who were persecuted because they acknowledged the message of Islam and sought asylum at the Muslim community (60:10). Since they did not get through a normal divorce process, an exceptional contract allows them to marry muslims as free women. Marrying them could create some social, economic and personal complications for the husband. They have nothing to do with IBaD (slaves), as sectarian translations and commentaries state. As we will learn, the Quran categorically rejects slavery and considers it to be the greatest sin (See 3:79; 4:25,92; 5:89; 8:67; 24:32-33; 58:3; 90:13; 2:286; 12:39-42; 79:24). The practice of slavery was justified and resurrected to a certain extent via the influence of Jewish and Christian scholars, as well as fabricated hadith and sharia laws, decades after Muhammad's departure. It is ironic that Jews who suffered the most from slavery and were saved by God through the leadership of Moses (Exodus 1:13-14), later justified enslaving other people, including selling one's own daughter, and inserted that practice into their holy books (Exodus 21:7-8; 21:21-22; 26-27; Leviticus 25:44-46; Joshua 9:6-27). Though Jesus never condoned slavery, St. Paul, the founder of modern Christianity, once asked the masters to treat their slaves nicely (Colossians 3:22), and asked the slaves to be "submissive to your masters with all fear" (1 Peter 2:18; Ephesians 6:5; 1 Timothy 6:2; Colossians 3:22; Titus 2:9) justifying the Marxist maxim, "Religion is the opium of masses." The use of religion by the privileged class to enslave or exploit people is vividly depicted by the South African archbishop Desmond Tutu: "When the missionaries came to Africa, they had the Bible and we had the land. They said 'let us close our eyes and pray'. When we opened them, we had the Bible, and they had the land." The word YaMYN means "right hand" or metaphorically "right," "power" or "control." However, its plural form aYMaN is consistently mentioned in the Quran to mean not "right hands" but to mean "oaths" or "promises," implying the mutual nature of the relationship (See 4:33 5:89; 9:12; 16:91- 94; 2:224-225; 30:28; 66:2; 5:53; 6:109). This unique Quranic usage is similar to the semantic difference between the singular and plural forms of the word Ayat (signs) (see 2:106). The expression in question, thus could be translated as "those whom your oaths/contracts have rights over" or "those whom you hold rights through your contracts," or by reading aYMaN (oaths/contracts) as an object rather than a subject, "those who hold/possess your contracts." The marriage declaration is a mutual partnership between two sexes and is formed by participation of family members. A married woman cannot marry another man without getting divorced from her husband. However, if a woman escapes and joins muslims while her husband stayed behind participating in a war against muslims, she may marry a Muslim man without actually getting divorced from her combatant husband; she will legally be considered a divorcee (60:10). Since this contract is different from the normal marriage contract, this special relationship is described in different words. The same is valid for a man whose wife allies with the hostile enemy. See 24:31 and 33:55. Those who work for another person according to employment contracts are also referred to with the same expression. See 16:71; 30:28. Also, see 4:25,36; 23:6; 24:58; 33:50; 33:52; 70:30. The Quran does not demand those who lived together based on a mutual promise (AYMaN) during the days of ignorance, without a marriage contract, to get divorced. Similarly, it does not want those who married two sisters before accepting islam to be a way of life (4:23). This tolerance does not encourage living together without marriage. It only does not want to incur further damage to the family structure and does not want to create hurdles for those who wish to live according to the principles of islam.

Edip-Layth - End Note 3 (4:7)
Compare this verse to the Old Testament, Numbers 27:8-11.

Edip-Layth - End Note 4 (4:11)
In this and following verses and from 2:180 we learn that priority is given to the will in the distribution of inheritance. According to these verses, first the debt is paid and the distribution according to the will is fulfilled. This Quranic rule allows the testator and the testatrix to adjust their will depending on specific conditions and needs of the inheritors or other personal issues. For instance, one may leave more inheritance to a daughter whom might be more in need than the others might. The testator or the testatrix might leave more to someone who is sick or handicapped. The Quran, by giving precedence to the will over the default distribution provides flexibility and thus accommodates special circumstances. Unfortunately, unable to comprehend the wisdom behind this divine arrangement, the followers of hadith and sunna have abrogated these verses via hadith fabrications and sectarian rules and thereby have deprived the so-called Muslims from God's mercy.

Edip-Layth - End Note 5 (4:12)
After paying the debt and distributing the shares according to the will, the inheritance will be distributed if the diseased had a mother, father, or wife, and the rest will be distributed to men and women according to the instructed ratio. It is important to remember that the ratio of shares instructed by the Quran to each other is as important as their ratio to the whole. In brief, the fractions are compared both to the whole and to each other. A deceased person might leave behind hundreds of combinations of relatives, father or no father, mother or no mother, son or no son, one son or more sons, daughter or no daughter, one daughter or more daughters, brother or no brother, one brother or more brothers, sister or no sister, one sister or more sisters, and numerous combinations among them. If the Quran suggested the fractions as merely their ratio compared to the whole inheritance, since for each combination of inheritors the ratios too would need to be changed, we would need hundreds of verses detailing the ratio for each combination. However, when we comprehend that the ratio in suggested distributions also reflect the amount of inheritance in proportion to each other, the verses about inheritance can easily be understood and implemented. For instance, let us assume that after deducting the debt and other shares, a man left a 50 thousand dollar inheritance to his wife and father without specially allocating the shares. Their shares should be 1/4th and 1/6th, respectively. Thus, the formula would be (1/4)+(1/6)=50,000. If we find the common denominator, then we see the ratio of inheritance as much clearer. When we take the common denominator, the numerator start to make sense in comparison to the share of each inheritor and to the inheritance: (3/12)+(2/12)=50,000. That means, the wife receives $30,000 and the father receives $20,000 of the inheritance. In sum, to learn the default shares of inheritors the fractions indicating the shares are added up and equated to the inheritance. Let's assume that we are asked to distribute 19 gold pieces among two people; one will receive 1/5th and the other 1/3rd.
(k1 + k2 + ... + kn) . x = t
pn = kn . x
k1 = 1/5
k2 = 1/3
(1/3 + 1/5) . x = 19 ? x = 19 . 15 / 8
p1 = (1/5) . 19 . 15 / 8 ? p1= 7 + 1/8
p2 = (1/3) . 19 . 15 / 8 ? p2= 11 + 7/8
The Old Testament does deprive daughters of inheritance from their parents and favors the first born against other children. Under the patriarchs, the property of a diseased father was divided among the sons of his legal wives and their concubines would not get a share (Genesis 21:10; 24:36; 25:5). The Mosaic law made specific regulations regarding the distribution of real property, giving the eldest son a larger portion than the rest. Deuteronomy 21:17; Numbers 27:8; 36:6; 27:9-11.

Edip-Layth - End Note 6 (4:15)
The relative pronoun in this verse is allati, which refers to a group of women. It indicates an organized prostitution, which might pose a grave health problem for the society. In a society that accepted the jurisdiction of the Quran, if a woman is proven four times to be involved in promiscuous sexual activity, she is considered a hazard to the society and should be quarantined. Perhaps there is also an implication for our time, where genetic identification helps us to find the real father of a child. Our genes are made of various combinations of four acid molecules: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thiamine. These four molecules, which are made of four different elements, function as witnesses for the identity of individuals to which they belong. The Quran does not necessarily require the witness to be an eyewitness. For instance, we bear witness to the oneness of God via our intelligence. The witness mentioned in 12:26-27 is not considered a witness because he was present during the alleged incident. That witness did not say, "I saw with my eyes." The human witness mentioned in that story is proposing the testimony of circumstantial evidence, and logical conclusions based on both inductive and deductive reasoning. In other words, the Quran accepts the testimony of reliable circumstantial evidence just as it accepts the testimony of a reliable eyewitness.

Edip-Layth - End Note 7 (4:16)
The relative pronoun is not marked; the male dual form allazani (both) includes the female partner. In this case, it appears that the illegal or extramarital sexual affair is monogamous. For the punishment of the adulterers, see 24:1.

Edip-Layth - End Note 8 (4:18)

Edip-Layth - End Note 9 (4:19)
According to the Old Testament, a rapist should be forced to marry the girl he violated. This rule punishes the victim and forces her to share the rest of her life with the violent and shameless man who violated her (Deuteronomy 22:28-30). How can this and many other unjust laws be imposed by a Just God? The Bible also forces the widow to marry another brother (Deuteronomy 25:5).

Edip-Layth - End Note 10 (4:24)
For a discussion regarding the expression Ma malakat aymanukum, see the note for verse 4:3.

Edip-Layth - End Note 12 (4:25)
Slavery as an evil practice of Pharaoh and other polytheists is abolished by the Quran (3:79; 4:3,25,92; 5:89; 8:67; 24:32-33; 58:3; 90:13; 2:286; 12:39-42; 79:24). No wonder, this verse emphasizes the equality between men and women, between the free and those who were unjustly enslaved by polytheists. See 60:10. God issues a lighter penalty for formerly slave women who commit adultery because of their past. Their tragic history and experience is considered a mitigating factor. This rule, at the same time, rejects the Sunni and Shiite punishment for adultery (death), since there cannot be half of a capital punishment. See 24:2.

Edip-Layth - End Note 13 (4:28)
God created humans in an excellent design (32:7; 64:3; 82:7; 95:4), yet we humans may lower ourselves to the lowest level by following the teachings of devil (95:5). It is interesting to see the passive voice when degeneration of human nature is mentioned. The Quran does not say "we made humans weak," but it says, "humans were made weak." Thus, whenever our weakness, impatience, or pessimism is mentioned the passive voice is used (4:28; 21:37; 70:19). Through this peculiar language, the Best Designer and the Ultimate Creator who created is in best design with freedom of choice, reminds us the negative impact of wrong choices on our excellent design. See 57:22-23.

Edip-Layth - End Note 14 (4:34)
As I discussed extensively, in Türkçe Kuran Çevirilerindeki Hatalar (Errors in Turkish Translation of the Quran, Istanbul, 1992-1998) and in English article, Beating Women or Beating Around the Bush (Unorthodox Articles, Internet, 1998), four key words or phrases have been mistranslated by traditional translators. To justify the misogynistic and patriarchal practices, deliberately or unknowingly, a majority of translators render the phrase kawamuna ala al-nisa as "in charge of women" rather than "providers for women" or "observant of women." Interestingly, the same translators translate the same verb mentioned in 4:135; 5:8; 4:127; 2:229; 20:14; 55:9 as "observe/maintain." When the same verb is used to depict a relationship between man and woman, it somehow magically transforms into a prescription of hierarchy and authority. The second key word that is commonly mistranslated is iDRiBuhunna. In almost all translations, you will see it translated as "scourge," or "beat" or "beat (lightly)". The verb DaRaBa is a multiple-meaning verb akin to English ‘strike’ or ‘get.’ The Quran uses the same verb with various meanings, such as, to travel, to get out (3:156; 4:101; 38:44; 73:20; 2:273), to strike (2:60,73; 7:160; 8:12; 20:77; 24:31; 26:63; 37:93; 47:4), to beat (8:50), to beat or regret (47:27), to set up (43:58; 57:13), to give (examples) (14:24,45; 16:75,76,112; 18:32,45; 24:35; 30:28,58; 36:78; 39:27,29; 43:17; 59:21; 66:10,11), to take away, to ignore (43:5), to condemn (2:61), to seal, to draw over (18:11), to cover (24:31), and to explain (13:17). It is again interesting that the scholars pick the meaning BEAT, among the many other alternatives, when the relationship between man and woman is involved, a relationship that is defined by the Quran with mutual love and care (30:21). The third word that has been traditionally mistranslated is the word NuSHuZ as "rebellion" or "disobedience" or "opposition" to men. If we study 4:34 carefully we will find a clue that leads us to translate that word as embracing a range of related ideas, from "flirting" to "engaging in an extramarital affair" – indeed, any word or words that reflects the range of disloyalty in marriage. The clue is the phrase before nushuz, which reads: ". . . they honor them according to God's commandments, even when alone in their privacy." This phrase emphasizes the importance of loyalty in marital life, and helps us to make better sense of what follows. Interestingly, the same word, nushuz, is used later in the same chapter, in 4:128 – but it is used to describe the misbehavior of husbands, not wives, as it was in 4:34. In our view, the traditional translation of nushuz, that is, "opposition," will not fit in both contexts. However, the understanding of nushuz as marital disloyalty, in a variety of forms, is clearly appropriate for both 4:34 and 4:128. The fourth word is the word QaNiTat, which means "devoted to God," and in some verses it describes both man and woman (2:116,238; 3:17,43; 16:120; 30:26; 33:31,35; 39:9; 66:5,12). Though this word is mostly translated correctly as "obedient," when read in the context of the above-mentioned distortion it conveys a false message as if to imply that women must be "obedient" to their husbands as their inferior, while the word refers to obedience to God's law. The word is mentioned as a general description of Muslim women (66:12), and more interestingly the description of Mary who, according to the Quran, did not even have a husband! (66:12). The traditional distortion of this verse was first questioned by Edip Yuksel in his book, "Kuran Çevirilerindeki Hatalar" (Errors in Turkish Translations) (1992, Istanbul). For a detailed discussion on verse 4:34, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction. After the revelation of the Quran, Muslim scholars turned back to the days of ignorance and they were supported by some Jewish and Christian scholars who apparently converted to Islam yet did not experience a paradigm change. These semi-converts and those Arabs who longed for the old culture of ignorance combined their forces together to take back the rights of women recognized and promoted by the Quran. The rights of women in the West have been recognized through the separation of church and state; however the culture is still basically a male dominant one and thus western women are objectified and exploited tremendously in the business world. The western culture is deeply influenced by the teaching of Christianity originating from the misogynistic authors of Old Testament and St. Paul (not Jesus) who subordinates women to men. For instance, see Ephesians 5:22-33; Colossians 3:18- 19; 1 Peter 3:1-7. "Let your women keep silent in the churches, for they are not permitted to speak; but they are to be submissive, as the law also says" (I Corinthians 14: 34). "For a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn. But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her be covered. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man. For man is not from woman, but woman from man. Nor was man created for the woman, but woman for the man" (I Corinthians 11:6-9). "Let a women learn in silence with all submission. And do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression. Nevertheless, she will be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love and holiness, with self-control" (I Timothy 2:11- 15). St. Paul's misogynistic teaching is a reflection and extension of a historical trend. The Old Testament contains many man-made misogynist teachings. For instance, a woman is considered unclean for one week if she gives birth to a son, but unclean for two weeks if she gives birth to a daughter (Leviticus 12:1- 5). The Quran prohibits a sexual relationship with a menstruating woman, not because she is dirty, but because menstruation is painful (2:222). The purpose is to protect women's health from being burdened by the sexual desires of their husbands. However, the male authors of the Old Testament, exaggerated and generalized this divine prohibition so much so that they turned menstruation into a reason for a woman’s humiliation, isolation, and punishment (Leviticus 15:19-33). Christianity puts all the blame on the shoulders of women for the troubles in this world. Yet, according to the Quran, we are created from one person (nafs), not one man (4:1). Furthermore, it was not Eve, but it was both Adam and his spouse who were deceived in the Paradise (2:30-39; 7:19-27). The Old Testament contains hyperbolic exaggerations and bizarre practices. For some examples, See the footnote of 4:119.

Edip-Layth - End Note 15 (4:35)
It is clear that divorce does not occur by some magic words uttered by the husband. Furthermore, woman is mentioned as one of the parties whose wish is equally important in case of divorce. See 2:226-230.

Edip-Layth - End Note 16 (4:36)
Keeping the family ties, cooperation, and humbleness are among the traits recommended by God (2:83; 3:92; 17:22-37).

Edip-Layth - End Note 17 (4:41)
For Muhammad's testimony, see 25:30.

Edip-Layth - End Note 18 (4:43)
The followers of hadith and sunna reject this statement by claiming the presence of a contradiction between this verse and other verses prohibiting the intoxicants. Their rejection of God's verse and their allegation of contradiction in God's book are due to their ignorance of the fact that there could be individuals among muslims who consume alcoholic beverages just as there could be those who steal, commit adultery, or commit false accusation. Acknowledgement of the imperfect nature of a Muslim community does not mean that God justifies sins and crimes. Our Lord informs a Muslim who is doing wrong to himself or herself by consuming alcohol not to commit additional disrespect to God by addressing God in a drunken state of mind. Additionally, this verse indirectly gives permission to the community to not to allow their intoxicated brothers and sisters into the places of prostration. Another lesson derived from this commandment is that we should know what we are saying or reciting during our prayers. Reciting Arabic words without knowing their meanings is like praying while intoxicated. See 2:106; 4:82. Bleeding, passing gas, or shaking hands with women and other reasons mentioned in hadith and sectarian books, do not void the ablution. Despite this clear verse, Sunni and Shiite sects contain many contradictory rules about ablution. The relationship between washing hands or faces with water and mental readiness to speak to God is not scientifically obvious, but, according to a recent study conducted at the University of Toronto, washing hands may clean of a guilty conscience. See 5:6.

Muhammad Asad - The Message Of Quran
Muhammad Asad - End Note 1 (4:1)
Out of the many meanings attributable to the term nafs - soul, spirit, mind, animate being, living entity, human being, person, self (in the sense of a personal identity), humankind, life-essence, vital principle, and so forth - most of the classical commentators choose "human being", and assume that it refers here to Adam. Muhammad 'Abduh, however, rejects this interpretation (Manar IV, 323 ff.) and gives, instead, his preference to "humankind" inasmuch as this term stresses the common origin and brotherhood of the human race (which, undoubtedly, is the purport of the above verse), without, at the same time, unwarrantably tying it to the Biblical account of the creation of Adam and Eve. My rendering of nafs, in this context, as "living entity" follows the same reasoning - As regards the expression zawjaha ("its mate"), it is to be noted that, with reference to animate beings, the term zawj ("a pair", "one of a pair" or "a mate") applies to the male as well as to the female component of a pair or couple; hence, with reference to human beings, it signifies a woman's mate (husband) as well as a man's mate (wife). Abu Muslim - as quoted by Razi - interprets the phrase "He created out of it (minha) its mate" as meaning "He created its mate [i.e., its sexual counterpart] out of its own kind (min jinsiha)", thus supporting the view of Muhammad 'Abduh referred to above. The literal translation of minha as "out of it" clearly alludes, in conformity with the text, to the biological fact that both sexes have originated from "one living entity".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 2 (4:2)
This relates to the legal guardians of orphans during the latter's minority.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 3 (4:3)
Lit., "such as are good for you" - i.e., women outside the prohibited degrees enumerated in verses 22-23 of this surah (Zamakhshari, Razi). According to an interpretation suggested by a'ishah, the Prophet's widow, this refers to the (hypothetical) case of orphan girls whom their guardians might wish to marry without, however, being prepared or able to give them an appropriate marriage-portion - the implication being that they should avoid the temptation of committing such an injustice and should marry other women instead (cf. Bukhari, Kitab at-Tafsir, as well as Muslim and Nasa'i). However, not all of a'ishah's contemporaries sub­scribed to her explanation of this verse. Thus, according to Sa'id ibn Jubayr, Qatadah, and other successors of the Companions, the purport of the above passage is this: "Just as you are, rightly, fearful of offending against the interests of orphans, you must apply the same careful con­sideration to the interests and rights of the women whom you intend to marry." In his commentary on this passage, Tabari quotes several variants of the above interpretation and gives it his unequivocal approval.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 4 (4:3)
Lit., "whom your right hands possess" - i.e., from among the captives taken in a war in God's cause (regarding which see notes on surah 2, notes 167 and 168, and surah 8, note 72). It is obvious that the phrase "two, or three, or four: but if you have reason to fear...", etc. is a parenthetic clause relating to both the free women mentioned in the first part of the sentence and to female slaves - for both these nouns are governed by the imperative verb "marry". Thus, the whole sentence has this meaning: "Marry from among [other] women such as are lawful to you, or [from among] those whom you rightfully possess - [even] two, or three, or four: but if you have reason to fear that you might not be able to treat them with equal fairness, then [only] one"- implying that, irrespective of whether they are free women or, originally, slaves, the number of wives must not exceed four. It was in this sense that Muhammad 'Abduh understood the above verse (see Manar IV, 350). This view is, moreover, supported by verse 25 of this surah as well as by 22, where marriage with female slaves is spoken of. Contrary to the popular view and the practice of many Muslims in the past centuries, neither the Qur'an nor the life-example of the Prophet provides any sanction for sexual intercourse without marriage. As regards the permission to marry more than one wife (up to the maximum of four), it is so restricted by the condition, "if you have reason to fear that you might not be able to treat them with equal fairness, then [marry only] one", as to make such plural marriages possible only in quite exceptional cases and under exceptional circumstances (see also the first clause of 22 and the corresponding note). Still, one might ask why the same latitude has not been given to women as well; but the answer is simple. Notwithstanding the spiritual factor of love which influences the relations between man and woman, the determinant biological reason for the sexual urge is, in both sexes, procreation: and whereas a woman can, at one time, conceive a child from one man only and has to carry it for nine months before she can conceive another, a man can beget a child every time he cohabits with a woman. Thus, while nature would have been merely wasteful if it had produced a polygamous instinct in woman, man's polygamous inclination is biologically justified. It is, of course, obvious that the biological factor is only one - and by no means always the most important - of the aspects of marital love: none the less, it is a basic factor and, therefore, decisive in the institution of marriage as such. With the wisdom that always takes human nature fully into account, Islamic Law undertakes no more than the safeguarding of the socio-biological function of marriage (which includes also care of the progeny), allowing a man to have more than one wife ald not allowing a woman to have more than one husband at one time; while the spiritual problem of marriage, being imponderable and therefore outside the scope of law, is left to the discretion of the partners. In any event - since marriage in Islam is a purely civil contract - recourse to divorce is always open to either of the two partners. (Regarding the dissolution of a marriage at the wife's instance, see note on surah 2, verse 229.)

Muhammad Asad - End Note 5 (4:4)
The expression nihlah signifies the giving of something willingly, of one's own accord, without expecting a return for it (Zamakhshari). It is to be noted that the amount of the marriage-portion, or dower which the bridegroom has to give to the bride has not been circumscribed by the Law: it depends entirely on the agreement of the two parties, and may consist of anything, even a mere token. According to several authentic Traditions recorded in most of the compilations, the Prophet made it clear that "even an iron ring" may be enough if the bride is willing to accept it, or, short of that, even "the imparting to thy bride of a verse of the Qur'an".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 6 (4:5)
Lit., "your possessions which God has assigned to you". The context makes it obvious that this relates to the property of orphans who have not yet reached the age of discretion and are, therefore, "weak of judgment" (lit., "weak-minded").

Muhammad Asad - End Note 7 (4:8)
I.e., people who do not have any legal claim to the inheritance, but nevertheless deserve to be considered.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 8 (4:11)
In my notes on verses 11-12, which spell out the legal shares of inheritance due to the next of kin, no attempt has been made to analyze all the legal implications of this ordinance. The laws of inheritance are the subject of a special, and very elaborate, branch of Islamic jurisprudence, and their full elucidation would go far beyond the scope of explanatory notes which aim at no more than making the text of the Qur'an accessible to the understanding of the non-specialized reader.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 9 (4:12)
Lit., "they".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 10 (4:12)
Lit., "more than that". According to most of the classical commentators, this passage refers to half-brothers and half-sisters. The inheritance of full brothers and sisters is dealt with at the end of this surah (verse 176).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 11 (4:12)
This refers to bequests and fictitious debts meant to deprive the heirs of their legal shares. According to several authentic Traditions, the Prophet forbade, in cases where there are legal heirs, the making of bequests to other persons in excess of one-third of one's estate (Bukhari and Muslim). If, however, there are no near of kin legally entitled to a share of the inheritance, the testator is free to bequeath his fortune in any way he desires.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 12 (4:15)
Lit., "them".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 13 (4:16)
Lit., "and the two from among you who become guilty thereof, punish them both". According to most of the commentators, this refers to immoral conduct on the part of a man and a woman as well as to homosexual relations.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 14 (4:16)
Some of the commentators attribute to the term fahishah (here rendered as "immoral conduct") the meaning of "adultery" or "fornication" and are, consequently, of the opinion that this verse has been "abrogated" by 24:2, which lays down the punishment of one hundred stripes for each of the guilty parties. This unwarranted assumption must, however, be rejected. Quite apart from the impossibility of admitting that any passage of the Qur'an could have been "abrogated" by another of its passages (see note on surah 2 verse 106), the expression fahishah does not, by itself, connote illicit sexual intercourse: it signifies anything that is grossly immodest, unseemly, lewd, indecent or abominable in word or in deed (cf. Lane VI, 2344 f.), and is by no means restricted to sexual transgressions. Read in this context, and in conjunction with 24:2, this expression obviously denotes here immoral conduct not necessarily amounting to what is termed zina (i.e., "adultery" or "fornication"), and therefore redeemable by sincere repentance (in contrast to a proven act of zina, which is punishable by flogging).- It is noteworthy that in all cases of alleged sexual transgressions or misbehaviour the Qur'an stipulates the direct evidence of four witnesses (instead of the two required in all other judicial cases) as a sine qua non of conviction. For the reasons underlying this injunction, as well as for its judicial implications, see note on 24:4.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 15 (4:17)
The expression min qarib, which here implies nearness in time, could also be rendered as "soon", i.e., soon after having committed the evil deed; most of the classical commentators, however, hold that in this context it denotes the time before the actual approach of death. This interpretation is borne out by the next verse.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 16 (4:18)
Lit., "until, when death approaches one of them, he says".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 17 (4:19)
According to one of the interpretations advanced by Zamakhshari, this refers to a man's forcibly keeping an unloved wife - and thus preventing her from marrying another man - in the hope of inheriting her property under the provisions specified in the first sentence of verse 12 above. Some authorities, however, are of the opinion that the meaning is: "It is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will"- thus expressing a prohibition of the pre-Islamic custom of inheriting the wives of deceased near relatives. But in view of the fact that Islam does not permit the "inheriting" of women under any circumstances (and not only "against their will"), the former interpretation is infinitely more plausible.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 18 (4:19)
In the event that a wife's immoral conduct has been proved by the direct evidence of four witnesses, as stipulated in verse 15 above, the husband has the right, on divorcing her, to demand the return of the whole or of part of the dower which he gave her at the time when the marriage was contracted. If - as is permissible under Islamic Law - the dower has not been actually handed over to the bride at the time of marriage but has taken the form of a legal obligation on the part of the husband, he is absolved of this obligation in the case of proven immoral conduct on the part of his wife.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 19 (4:19)
Lit., "with them".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 20 (4:19)
Lit., "and God might place in it".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 21 (4:20)
Lit., "if you desire the exchange of a wife in place of a wife, and you have given one of them a treasure (qintar), do not take away anything thereof". The allusion to the "exchange" of one wife for another is a clear indication of the Qur'anic view that a monogamous marriage is the desirable norm.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 22 (4:20)
I.e., by falsely accusing her of immoral conduct in the hope of regaining her dower (see note on verse 19 above).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 23 (4:21)
Lit., "they have" - the reference being to all married women.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 24 (4:22)
Lit., "except what has come to pass earlier"- i.e., forgiven shall be he who did it before the promulgation of this Qur'anic ordinance or (in the case of a conversion in later times) before one's acceptance of Islam.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 25 (4:23)
See preceding note.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 26 (4:24)
The term muhsanah signifies literally "a woman who is fortified [against unchastity]", and carries three senses: (1) "a married woman", (2) "a chaste woman", and (3) "a free woman". According to almost all the authorities, al-muhsanat denotes in the above context "married women". As for the expression ma malakat aymanukum ("those whom your right hands possess", i.e., "those whom you rightfully possess"), it is often taken to mean female slaves captured in a war in God's cause (see in this connection 8:67, and the corresponding note). The commentators who choose this meaning hold that such slave-girls can be taken in marriage irrespective of whether they have husbands in the country of their origin or not. However, quite apart from the fundamental differences of opinion, even among the Companions of the Prophet, regarding the legality of such a marriage, some of the most outstanding commentators hold the view that ma malakat aymanukum denotes here "women whom you rightfully possess through wedlock"; thus Razi in his commentary on this verse, and Tabari in one of his alternative explanations (going back to 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas, Mujahid, and others). Razi, in particular, points out that the reference to "all married women" (al-muhsanat min an-nisa'), coming as it does after the enumeration of prohibited degrees of relationship, is meant to stress the prohibition of sexual relations with any woman other than one's lawful wife.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 27 (4:24)
Lit., "with your possessions" - i.e., offering them, as the Law demands, an appropriate dower.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 28 (4:24)
Cf. verse 4 of this surah, and the corresponding note.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 29 (4:25)
The phrase lam yastati tawlan is often taken to mean "he is not in a position to afford", i.e., in the financial sense; but Muhammad 'Abduh very convincingly expresses the view that it applies to all manner of preventive circumstances, be they of a material, personal or social nature (Manar V, 19).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 30 (4:25)
In this context, ma malakat aymanukum (lit., "those whom your right hands possess") denotes women who were captured in a holy war and have subsequently embraced Islam. In the above phrase, the pronoun "you" refers to the community as a whole.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 31 (4:25)
I.e., since all human beings - whatever their outward "social status" - are members of one and the same human family, and are therefore equal to one another in the sight of God (cf. 3:195), it is only the strength or weakness of faith which makes one person superior or inferior to another.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 32 (4:25)
Lit., "and not taking unto themselves secret love-companions". This passage lays down in an unequivocal manner that sexual relations with female slaves are permitted only on the basis of marriage, and that in this respect there is no difference between them and free women; consequently, concubinage is ruled out.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 33 (4:25)
The weaker social status of a slave makes her, obviously, more accessible to temptation than a free married woman is presumed to be.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 34 (4:25)
I.e., to those who for one reason or another are unable to marry free women and are, at the same time, not equal to the temptations arising from celibacy. As is made clear in the next sentence, the Qur'an discourages such marriages - obviously with a view to removing a major attraction from the institution of slavery as such, and thus promoting its abolition.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 35 (4:26)
An allusion to the genuine religious teachings of the past, which aimed at bringing about a harmony between man's physical nature and the demands of his spirit - a harmony which is destroyed whenever asceticism is postulated as the only possible alternative to licentiousness (see also note on surah 2, verse 143). This allusion arises from the discussion of sexual morality in the preceding passages devoted to marital relations.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 36 (4:27)
Lit., "want you to deviate with a tremendous deviation".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 37 (4:28)
I.e., to remove, by means of His guidance, all possibility of conflict between man's spirit and his bodily urges, and to show him a way of life in which these two elements of human nature can be harmonized and brought to full fruition.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 38 (4:29)
If the particle illa preceding the above clause is given its usual meaning of "except" or "unless it be", the phrase ought to be rendered thus: "unless it be [an act of] trade based on mutual agreement". This formulation, however, has baffled many a commentator: for, if taken literally, it would imply that wrongful profits from trading based on mutual agreement are excepted from the general prohibition, "Devour not one another's possessions wrongfully"- a supposition impossible to maintain in view of the ethics postulated by the Qur'an. To obviate this difficulty, most of the commentators express the opinion that the particle illa has in this context the meaning of "but", and that the clause ought to be understood as follows: "but it is lawful for you to profit from one another's possessions by way of legitimate trade based on mutual agreement". However, quite apart from the fact that this interpretation is highly laboured and artificial, it does not explain why "legitimate trade" should have been singled out here as a sole means of lawfully deriving economic benefits from one another - for, as Razi, rightly points out in his commentary on this verse, "it is no less lawful to benefit economically through a gift, a bequest, a legal inheritance, alms, a dower, or an indemnity for injuries received: for there are, aside from trade, many ways of acquiring possessions [lawfully]". Why, then, should trade alone have been stressed? - and, moreover, stressed in a context not particularly devoted to matters of trade? A really satisfactory answer to this puzzle can, in my opinion, be obtained only through a linguistic consideration of the particle illa. Apart from its usual connotation of "except" or "unless it be", it has sometimes - as has been pointed out in both Qamus and Mughni - the meaning of the simple conjunction "and" (wa); similarly, if it is preceded by a negative clause, it can be synonymous with "nor" or "and neither" (wa-la): as, for instance, in 27:10-11, "no fear need the message-bearers have in My Presence, and neither (illa) need he who...", etc. Now if we apply this particular use of illa to the passage under consideration, we arrive at the reading, "nor [shall you do it] by means of trade based on mutual agreement", or simply, "not even by way of trade based on mutual agreement" - whereupon the meaning immediately becomes obvious: the believers are prohibited from devour­ing another person's possessions wrongfully even if that other person - being the weaker party - agrees to such a deprivation or exploitation under the stress of circumstances. The reading adopted by me logically connects, moreover, with verse 32, which admonishes the believers not to covet one another's possessions.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 39 (4:30)
Lit., "by way of [deliberate] transgression and wrongdoing" ('udwanan wa-zulman).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 40 (4:31)
I.e., paradise. However, according to some of the commentators, the expression mudkhal denotes not the place but the manner of "entering" (Razi) - in which case the above phrase may be rendered thus: "We shall cause you to enter [upon your afterlife] in a state of glory".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 41 (4:33)
I.e., wives and husbands (Abu Muslim, as quoted by Razi).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 42 (4:34)
Lit., "more on some of them than on the others".- The expression qawwam is an intensive form of qa'im ("one who is responsible for" or "takes care of" a thing or a person). Thus, qama ala l-mar'ah signifies "he undertook the maintenance of the woman" or "he maintained her" (see Lane VIII, 2995). The grammatical form qawwam is more comprehensive than qa'im, and combines the concepts of physical maintenance and protection as well as of moral responsibility: and it is because of the last-named factor that I have rendered this phrase as "men shall take full care of women".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 43 (4:34)
Lit., "who guard that which cannot be perceived (al-ghayb) because God has [willed it to be] guarded".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 44 (4:34)
The term nushuz (lit., "rebellion"- here rendered as "ill-will") comprises every kind of deliberate bad behaviour of a wife towards her husband or of a husband towards his wife, including what is nowadays described as "mental cruelty"; with reference to the husband, it also denotes "ill-treatment", in the physical sense, of his wife (cf. verse 128 of this surah). In this context, a wife's "ill-will" implies a deliberate, persistent breach of her marital obligations.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 45 (4:34)
It is evident from many authentic Traditions that the Prophet himself intensely detested the idea of beating one's wife, and said on more than one occasion, "Could any of you beat his wife as he would beat a slave, and then lie with her in the evening?" (Bukhari and Muslim). According to another Tradition, he forbade the beating of any woman with the words, "Never beat God's handmaidens" (Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Hibban and Hakim, on the authority of Iyas ibn 'Abd Allah; Ibn Hibban, on the authority of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas; and Bayhaqi, on the authority of Umm Kulthum). When the above Qur'an-verse authorizing the beating of a refractory wife was revealed, the Prophet is reported to have said: "I wanted one thing, but God has willed another thing - and what God has willed must be best" (see Manar V, 74). With all this, he stipulated in his sermon on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage, shortly before his death, that beating should be resorted to only if the wife "has become guilty, in an obvious manner, of immoral conduct", and that it should be done "in such a way as not to cause pain (ghayr mubarrih)"; authentic Traditions to this effect are found in Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i and Ibn Majah. On the basis of these Traditions, all the authorities stress that this "beating", if resorted to at all, should be more or less symbolic - "with a toothbrush, or some such thing" (Tabari, quoting the views of scholars of the earliest times), or even "with a folded handkerchief" (Razi); and some of the greatest Muslim scholars (e.g., Ash-Shafi'i) are of the opinion that it is just barely permissible, and should preferably be avoided: and they justify this opinion by the Prophet's personal feelings with regard to this problem.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 46 (4:36)
The expression shay'an (here rendered as "in any way") makes it clear that shirk ("the ascribing of divinity to anything beside God") is not confined to a worship of other "deities", but implies also the attribution of divine or quasi-divine powers to persons or objects not regarded as deities: in other words, it embraces also saint-worship, etc.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 47 (4:36)
I.e., "whether he belongs to your own or to another community". That the expression "your own people" (dhu l-qurba) refers to the community and not to one's actual relatives is obvious from the fact that "the near of kin" have already been mentioned earlier in this sentence. The Prophet often stressed a believer's moral obligation towards his neighbours, whatever their faith; and his attitude has been summed up in his words, "Whoever believes in God and the Last Day, let him do good unto his neighbour" (Bukhari, Muslim, and other compilations).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 48 (4:36)
According to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud and other Companions, "the friend by your side" (as-sahib bi'l-janb) is one's wife or husband (Tabari). By "those whom you rightfully possess" (lit., "whom your right hands possess") are meant, in this context, slaves of either sex. Since this verse enjoins the "doing of good" towards all people with whom one is in contact, and since the best that can be done to a slave is to free him, the above passage calls, elliptically, for the freeing of slaves (Manar V, 94). See also surah 2, verse 177, as well as 9:60, where the freeing of human beings from bondage is explicitly mentioned as one of the objectives to which zakah funds are to be dedicated.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 49 (4:38)
An allusion to 2:268, where Satan is spoken of as "threatening you with the prospect of poverty and bidding you to be niggardly", the implication being that those who obey him "have Satan for their soul-mate (qarin)". For the derivation of this term, see note on 41:25.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 50 (4:39)
Lit., "what is it that would be upon them". This seems to be a reference to the oft-repeated Qur'anic statement that those who believe in God and live righteously "need have no fear" (la khawf alayhim - lit., "no fear [shall be] upon them").

Muhammad Asad - End Note 51 (4:40)
Lit., "from himself "- i.e., far in excess of what the doer of good may have merited.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 52 (4:41)
I.e., the earlier apostles, of whom every community or civilization has had a share.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 53 (4:42)
Lit., "become level with them". The term "the apostle" is probably used here in its generic sense, and refers to all the apostles who preached God's message at one time or another.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 54 (4:43)
The reference to prayer at this place arises from the mention, in the preceding verses, of the Day of Judgment, when man will have to answer before God for what he did during his life in this world: for it is in prayer that man faces God, spiritually, during his earthly life, and reminds himself of his responsibility towards the Creator. As regards the prohibition of attempting to pray "while in a state of drunkenness", some of the commentators assume that this ordinance represented the first stage of the total prohibition of intoxicants, and has been, consequently, "abrogated" by the promulgation of the law of total abstinence from all intoxicants (5:90). However, quite apart from the fact that the doctrine of "abrogation" is entirely untenable (see surah 2, verse 106), there is no warrant whatever for regarding the above verse as a "first step" which has become redundant, as it were, after total prohibition was ordained. It is, of course, true that the Qur'an forbids the use of intoxicants at all times, and not merely at the time of prayer; but since "man has been created weak" (4:28), his lapse from the way of virtue is always a possibility: and it is to prevent him from adding the sin of praying while in a state of drunkenness to the sin of using intoxicants as such that the above verse was promulgated. Moreover, the expression "while you are in a state of drunkenness (sukara)" does not apply exclusively to alcoholic intoxication, since the term sukr, in its wider connotation, signifies any state of mental disequilibrium which prevents man from making full use of his intellectual faculties: that is to say, it can apply also to a temporary clouding of the intellect by drugs or giddiness or passion, as well as to the state metaphorically described as "drunk with sleep"- in brief, to any condition in which normal judgment is confused or suspended. And because the Qur'an insists throughout on consciousness as an indispensable element in every act of worship, prayer is permitted only when man is in full possession of his mental faculties and "knows what he is saying".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 55 (4:43)
I.e., after sexual intercourse. The term junub (rendered by me as "in a state requiring total ablution") is derived from the verb janaba, "he made (a thing) remote", and signifies one's remoteness from prayer because of immersion in sexual passion.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 56 (4:43)
Lit., "if one of you comes from the place in which one satisfies...", etc.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 57 (4:43)
This symbolic ablution, called tayammum, consists in touching the earth, or anything supposed to contain dust, with the palms of one's hands and then passing them lightly over face and hands. Whenever water is not within reach - or cannot be used because of illness - the tayammum takes the place of both the total ablution after sexual intercourse (ghusl) and the partial ablution before prayers (wudu).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 58 (4:44)
The people referred to are the followers of the Bible. Thus, after having touched in the preceding verse upon the question of prayer, the Qur'an resumes its cardinal theme: man's responsibility for his actions and, in particular, for the manner in which he responds to the guidance offered to him through God's revelations.

Rashad Khalifa - The Final Testament
Rashad Khalifa - End Note 2 (4:3)
See Appendix 30 for a detailed discussion of polygamy.

Rashad Khalifa - End Note 3 (4:11)
Generally, the son is responsible for a family, while the daughter is taken care of by a husband. However, the Quran recommends in 2:180 thata will shall be left to conform with the specific circumstances of the deceased.For example, if the son is rich and the daughter is poor, one may leave a will giving the daughtereverything, or twice as much as the son.

Rashad Khalifa - End Note (4:11)

Rashad Khalifa - End Note 4 (4:15)
A woman witnessed by four people in the act of committing adultery on four different occasions, with four different partners, represents a dangerto public health. Such a woman is a depository of germs, and a health quarantineprotects the society from her. A good example of an exit that saves a quarantined woman ismarriage--someone may wish to marry her, and thus protect her and thesociety.

Rashad Khalifa - End Note 8 (4:34)
This expression simply means that God is appointing the husband as "captain of the ship." Marriage is like a ship, and the captain runs it afterdue consultation with his officers. A believing wife readily accepts God'sappointment, without mutiny.

Rashad Khalifa - End Note (4:34)

Shabbir Ahmed -
Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 2 (4:3)
Second marriage during peace time is a frank violation of the Qur'an - note 'if you fear'

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 3 (4:7)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 4 (4:12)
Please see 2:219, 2:180, 2:240, 4:8. For a deceased who has no ascendants or descendants, see further 4:176

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 6 (4:15)
Maut, literally death, has been translated as indefinite period in agreement with Jurjani and Raghib

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 7 (4:27)
They would rather have no laws to constrain their desires

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 8 (4:28)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 9 (4:29)
So you must be merciful to others. 2:275, 53:39. Illa in this verse means 'not even' and not 'except'. 2:188, 26:181

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 10 (4:32)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 11 (4:33)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 12 (4:34)
Qawwam = Protector = Maintainer = One who helps others to stand at their feet. Nushooz = Ill-treatment = Rebellion = To stand up (2:259, 58:11) = To stand up against virtue = Mental abuse = Domestic violence = To rebel against the permanent moral values. Wa'az = Admonishment = To apprise of consequences (2:231, 3:66). Dharb = Example (13:17, 16:74, 36:13) = To stop or prevent (8:11, 43:5) = To embark upon a journey = Strike the road or begin to travel (4:101) = To give examples (4:34, 13:17, 16:74, 36:13, 43:58) = To withdraw (43:5)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 13 (4:35)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 14 (4:41)

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