5:75 The Messiah, son of Mary, is no more than a messenger like the messengers before him, and his mother was a saint. Both of them used to eat the food. Note how we explain the revelations for them, and note how they still deviate!
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
 
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Edip-Layth 5:39 Whoever repents after his wrongdoing and makes reparations, then God will accept his repentance. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
The Monotheist Group 5:39 Whoever repents after his wrongdoing and makes reparations, then God will accept his repentance. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad 5:39 But as for him who repents after having thus done wrong, and makes amends,49 behold, God will accept his repentance: verily, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
Rashad Khalifa 5:39 If one repents after committing this crime, and reforms, GOD redeems him. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:39 Whoever repents after the crime and makes amends, certainly, God grants him pardon. Surely, God is Forgiving, Merciful. 14
Transliteration 5:39 Faman taba min baAAdi thulmihiwaaslaha fa-inna Allaha yatoobu AAalayhiinna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
A 5:39 فمن تاب من بعد ظلمه واصلح فان الله يتوب عليه ان الله غفور رحيم
Edip-Layth 5:40 Did you not know that God possesses the sovereignty of heavens and earth? He punishes whom He wills and He forgives whom He wills; and God is capable of all things.
The Monotheist Group 5:40 Did you not know that God possesses the sovereignty of heavens and Earth. He punishes whom He wills and He forgives whom He wills; and God is capable of all things.
Muhammad Asad 5:40 Dost thou not know that God's is the dominion over the heavens and the earth? He chastises whom He wills, and He forgives whom He wills: for God has the power to will anything.
Rashad Khalifa 5:40 Do you not know that GOD possesses the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth? He punishes whomever He wills, and forgives whomever He wills. GOD is Omnipotent.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:40 Do you not know that God's is the Dominion of the heavens and earth? He is the law-giving authority. He punishes and forgives according to His Law of Requital. God has Control over all things and He has appointed due measure for all things.
Transliteration 5:40 Alam taAAlam anna Allaha lahu mulku alssamawatiwaal-ardi yuAAaththibu man yashaowayaghfiru liman yashao waAllahu AAalakulli shay-in qadeerun
A 5:40 الم تعلم ان الله له ملك السموت والارض يعذب من يشاء ويغفر لمن يشاء والله على كل شىء قدير
Edip-Layth Corrupt People Distort the Message 5:41 O messenger, do not be saddened by those who compete with each other in rejection from among those who said, "We acknowledge" with their mouths while their hearts did not acknowledge. From among the Jews, there are those who listen to lies; they listen to people who never came to you; they distort the words from their context, and they say, "If you are given this, then take it; but if you are given anything different, then beware!" Whomever God wants to test, you will not possess anything for him against God. These are the ones whose hearts God did not want to cleanse; in this world, they will have humiliation, and in the Hereafter, they will have a great retribution.
The Monotheist Group 5:41 O messenger, do not be saddened by those who increase in disbelief from among those who said: "We believe" with their mouths while their hearts did not believe. And from among the Jews, there are those who listened to lies; they listened to people who never came to you; they distort the words from their context, and they say: "If you are given this, then take it, but if you are given anything different, then beware!" And whoever God wants to test, then you will not possess anything for him against God. These are the ones whose hearts God did not want to cleanse; in this world they will have humiliation, and in the Hereafter they will have a great retribution.
Muhammad Asad 5:41 O APOSTLE! Be not grieved by those who vie with one another in denying the truth: such as those50 who say with their mouths, "We believe," the while their hearts do not believe; and such of the Jewish faith as eagerly listen to any falsehood, eagerly listen to other people without having come to thee [for enlightenment].51 They distort the meaning of the [revealed] words, taking them out of their context, saying [to themselves], "If such-and-such [teaching] is vouchsafed unto you, accept it; but if it is not vouchsafed unto you, be on your guard!"52 [Be not grieved by them-] for if God wills anyone to be tempted to evil, thou canst in no wise prevail with God in his behalf.53 It is they whose hearts God is not willing to cleanse. Theirs shall be ignominy in this world, and awesome suffering in the life to come-
Rashad Khalifa 5:41 O you messenger, do not be saddened by those who hasten to disbelieve among those who say, "We believe," with their mouths, while their hearts do not believe. Among the Jews, some listened to lies. They listened to people who never met you, and who distorted the words out of context, then said, "If you are given this, accept it, but if you are given anything different, beware." Whomever GOD wills to divert, you can do nothing to help him against GOD. GOD does not wish to cleanse their hearts. They have incurred humiliation in this world, and in the Hereafter, they will suffer a terrible retribution.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:41 O Messenger! Let not those grieve you who run to disbelief, saying, "We believe," with their mouths, while their hearts do not believe. And grieve not about those Jews who listen for the sake of fabricating lies. They listen and go to their people who have never met with you. Then they distort the words out of context and tell others to accept only a part and reject a part. You can do nothing to help those who decide to go astray. guidance and straying depend upon the laws of God (4:88). God does not intervene to purify the hearts of such people. For those who go astray, there is disgrace in this world and an awful punishment in the Hereafter.
Transliteration 5:41 Ya ayyuha alrrasoolu layahzunka allatheena yusariAAoona fee alkufrimina allatheena qaloo amanna bi-afwahihimwalam tu/min quloobuhum wamina allatheena hadoosammaAAoona lilkathibi sammaAAoona liqawmin akhareenalam ya/tooka yuharrifoona alkalima min baAAdi mawadiAAihiyaqooloona in ooteetum hatha fakhuthoohu wa-in lamtu/tawhu faihtharoo waman yuridi Allahufitnatahu falan tamlika lahu mina Allahi shay-an ola-ikaallatheena lam yuridi Allahu an yutahhiraquloobahum lahum fee alddunya khizyun walahum feeal-akhirati AAathabun AAatheemun
A 5:41 يايها الرسول لا يحزنك الذين يسرعون فى الكفر من الذين قالوا ءامنا بافوههم ولم تومن قلوبهم ومن الذين هادوا سمعون للكذب سمعون لقوم ءاخرين لم ياتوك يحرفون الكلم من بعد مواضعه يقولون ان اوتيتم هذا فخذوه وان لم توتوه فاحذروا ومن يرد الله فتنته فلن تملك له من الله شيا اولئك الذين لم يرد الله ان يطهر قلوبهم لهم فى الدنيا خزى ولهم فى الءاخرة عذاب عظيم
Edip-Layth 5:42 They listen to lies, and consume money illicitly. If they come to you, then you may judge between them or turn away from them. If you turn away from them then they cannot harm you in the least; and if you judge then you should judge between them with justice. God loves those who are just.10
The Monotheist Group 5:42 They listen to lies, and consume money illicitly. If they come to you, then you may judge between them or turn away from them; and if you turn away from them then they cannot harm you in the least; and if you judge then judge between them with justice. God loves those who are just.
Muhammad Asad 5:42 those who eagerly listen to any falsehood, greedily swallowing all that is evil!54 Hence, if they come to thee [for judgment],55 thou mayest either judge between them or leave them alone: for, if thou leave them alone, they cannot harm thee in any way. But if thou dost judge, judge between them with equity :56 verily, God knows those who act equitably.
Rashad Khalifa 5:42 They are upholders of lies, and eaters of illicit earnings. If they come to you to judge among them, you may judge among them, or you may disregard them. If you choose to disregard them, they cannot harm you in the least. But if you judge among them, you shall judge equitably. GOD loves those who are equitable.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:42 They are upholders of falsehood and they make wealth by unfair means. They get bribed into spying. If they come to you asking to judge among them, the choice to accept or reject their request is yours. You have the right to disclaim jurisdiction since they have not yet accepted the Qur'an and they have the Torah. If you disclaim jurisdiction they cannot harm you at all. However, if you decide to judge among them, do so equitably. God loves the equitable.
Transliteration 5:42 SammaAAoona lilkathibi akkaloonalilssuhti fa-in jaooka faohkumbaynahum aw aAArid AAanhum wa-in tuAArid AAanhumfalan yadurrooka shay-an wa-in hakamta faohkumbaynahum bialqisti inna Allaha yuhibbualmuqsiteena
A 5:42 سمعون للكذب اكلون للسحت فان جاءوك فاحكم بينهم او اعرض عنهم وان تعرض عنهم فلن يضروك شيا وان حكمت فاحكم بينهم بالقسط ان الله يحب المقسطين
Edip-Layth 5:43 How can they make you their judge when they have the Torah, containing God's judgment; then they turn away after that. They do not acknowledge.
The Monotheist Group 5:43 And how can they make you their judge when they have the Torah, in which is God's judgment; then they turn away after that. Those are not believers.
Muhammad Asad 5:43 But how is it that they ask thee for judgment seeing that they have the Torah, containing God's injunctions - and thereafter turn away [from thy judgment]? Such as these, then, are no [true] believers.57
Rashad Khalifa 5:43 Why do they ask you to judge among them, when they have the Torah, containing GOD's law, and they chose to disregard it? They are not believers.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:43 Why do they ask you to act as a judge among them when they have the Torah, containing God's law and they disregard it? They are not believers.
Transliteration 5:43 Wakayfa yuhakkimoonaka waAAindahumu alttawratufeeha hukmu Allahi thumma yatawallawna minbaAAdi thalika wama ola-ika bialmu/mineena
A 5:43 وكيف يحكمونك وعندهم التورىة فيها حكم الله ثم يتولون من بعد ذلك وما اولئك بالمومنين
Edip-Layth 5:44 We have sent down the Torah, in it is guidance and a light; the prophets who have peacefully surrendered judged with it for those who are Jews, as well as the Rabbis, and the Priests, for what they were entrusted of God's book, and they were witness over it. So do not revere the people but revere Me; and do not purchase with My signs a cheap price. Whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then these are the ingrates.11
The Monotheist Group 5:44 We have sent down the Torah, in it is guidance and a light; the prophets who have submitted judged with it for those who are Jews, as well as the Rabbis, and the Priests, for what they were entrusted of God's Scripture, and they were witness over. So do not fear the people but fear Me; and do not purchase with My revelations a cheap price. And whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then these are the rejecters.
Muhammad Asad 5:44 Verily, it is We who bestowed from on high the Torah, wherein there was guidance and light. On `its strength did the prophets, who had surrendered themselves unto God, deliver judgment unto those who followed the Jewish faith;58 and so did the [early] men of God and the rabbis, inasmuch as some of God's writ had been entrusted to their care;59 and they [all] bore witness to its truth. Therefore, [O children of Israel,] hold not men in awe, but stand in awe of Me; and do not barter away My messages for a trifling gain:60 for they who do not judge in accordance with what God has bestowed from on high are, indeed, deniers of the truth!
Rashad Khalifa Honoring Previous Scripture 5:44 We have sent down the Torah, containing guidance and light. Ruling in accordance with it were the Jewish prophets, as well as the rabbis and the priests, as dictated to them in GOD's scripture, and as witnessed by them. Therefore, do not reverence human beings; you shall reverence Me instead. And do not trade away My revelations for a cheap price. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD's revelations are the disbelievers.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:44 We did send down the Torah containing guidance and a light. By it the prophets who always sincerely submitted to God, judged the Jews. And the rabbis and the priests judged according to God's scripture as they were commanded to observe. For, to them was entrusted the protection of God's Book, and they were witnesses to it. So, fear not people, but fear Me and do not trade away My revelations for petty gains. Whoever does not judge and does not rule according to what God has revealed, such are the disbelievers.
Transliteration 5:44 Inna anzalna alttawratafeeha hudan wanoorun yahkumu biha alnnabiyyoonaallatheena aslamoo lillatheena hadoo waalrrabbaniyyoonawaal-ahbaru bima istuhfithoomin kitabi Allahi wakanoo AAalayhi shuhadaafala takhshawoo alnnasa waikhshawniwala tashtaroo bi-ayatee thamanan qaleelanwaman lam yahkum bima anzala Allahu faola-ikahumu alkafiroona
A 5:44 انا انزلنا التورىة فيها هدى ونور يحكم بها النبيون الذين اسلموا للذين هادوا والربنيون والاحبار بما استحفظوا من كتب الله وكانوا عليه شهداء فلا تخشوا الناس واخشون ولا تشتروا بايتى ثمنا قليلا ومن لم يحكم بما انزل الله فاولئك هم الكفرون
Edip-Layth 5:45 We have decreed for them in it that a life for a life, and an eye for an eye, and a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and wounds to be similar; and whoever remits anything of it, then it will cancel sins for him. Whoever does not judge by what God has sent down, then these are the wicked.12
The Monotheist Group 5:45 And We have decreed for them in it that a life for a life, and an eye for an eye, and a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and wounds to be similar; and whoever remits anything of it, then it will cancel sins for him. And whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then these are the wicked.    
Muhammad Asad 5:45 And We ordained for them in that [Torah]: A life for a life, and an eye for an eye, and a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and a [similar] retribution for wounds;61 but he who shall forgo it out of charity will atone thereby for some of his past sins.62 And they who do not judge in accordance with what God has revealed - they, they are the evildoers! ,
Rashad Khalifa The Law of Equivalence 5:45 And we decreed for them in it that: the life for the life, the eye for the eye, the nose for the nose, the ear for the ear, the tooth for the tooth, and an equivalent injury for any injury. If one forfeits what is due to him as a charity, it will atone for his sins. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD's revelations are the unjust.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:45 For them (Jews), We had decreed in the Torah: Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and equal injury for injury (Exodus 21:23). But If one shall forgo retaliation by way of charity, it shall absolve his or her imperfections. Whoever does not judge or rule according to what God has Revealed, such are the wrongdoers." 15
Transliteration 5:45 Wakatabna AAalayhim feeha annaalnnafsa bialnnafsi waalAAayna bialAAayniwaal-anfa bial-anfi waalothuna bialothuniwaalssinna bialssinni waaljurooha qisasunfaman tasaddaqa bihi fahuwa kaffaratun lahu wamanlam yahkum bima anzala Allahu faola-ikahumu alththalimoona
A 5:45 وكتبنا عليهم فيها ان النفس بالنفس والعين بالعين والانف بالانف والاذن بالاذن والسن بالسن والجروح قصاص فمن تصدق به فهو كفارة له ومن لم يحكم بما انزل الله فاولئك هم الظلمون
Edip-Layth The Injeel (Good News) and the Quran 5:46 We followed their teaching with Jesus the son of Mary, authenticating what was present with him of the Torah. We gave him the Injeel, in it is guidance and light, and to authenticate what is present with him of the Torah, and a guidance and lesson for the righteous.
The Monotheist Group 5:46 And We sent in their footsteps Jesus the son of Mary, authenticating what was present with him of the Torah. And We gave him the Injeel, in it is guidance and light, and to authenticate what is present with him of the Torah, and a guidance and lesson for the righteous.
Muhammad Asad 5:46 And We caused Jesus, the son of Mary, to follow in the footsteps of those [earlier prophets], confirming the truth of whatever there still remained63 of the Torah; and We vouchsafed unto him the Gospel, wherein there was guidance and light, confirming the truth of whatever there still remained of the Torah, and as a guidance and admonition unto the God-conscious.
Rashad Khalifa The Gospel of Jesus: Guidance and Light 5:46 Subsequent to them, we sent Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming the previous scripture, the Torah. We gave him the Gospel, containing guidance and light, and confirming the previous scriptures, the Torah, and augmenting its guidance and light, and to enlighten the righteous.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:46 And after them We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow in their footsteps, confirming the (remaining truth in) what was revealed before him. We gave him the Gospel in which there was guidance and a light, and it confirmed the (truth in) what was revealed before it in the Torah, a guidance and admonition to those who wished to live upright. 16
Transliteration 5:46 Waqaffayna AAala atharihimbiAAeesa ibni maryama musaddiqan lima baynayadayhi mina alttawrati waataynahual-injeela feehi hudan wanoorun wamusaddiqan limabayna yadayhi mina alttawrati wahudan wamawAAithatanlilmuttaqeena
A 5:46 وقفينا على ءاثرهم بعيسى ابن مريم مصدقا لما بين يديه من التورىة وءاتينه الانجيل فيه هدى ونور ومصدقا لما بين يديه من التورىة وهدى وموعظة للمتقين
Edip-Layth 5:47 Let the people of the Injeel judge with what God has sent down in it. Whoever does not judge by what God has sent down, then these are the vile ones.
The Monotheist Group 5:47 And let the people of the Injeel judge with what God has sent down in it. And whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then these are the vile ones.
Muhammad Asad 5:47 Let, then, the followers of the Gospel judge in accordance with what God has revealed therein: for they who do not judge in the light of what God has bestowed from on high-it is they, they who are truly iniquitous!
Rashad Khalifa 5:47 The people of the Gospel shall rule in accordance with GOD's revelations therein. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD's revelations are the wicked.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:47 Let the People of the Gospel judge by what God has revealed therein. Those who fail to judge and rule according to God's revelation, are drifters from the right path.
Transliteration 5:47 Walyahkum ahlu al-injeeli bimaanzala Allahu feehi waman lam yahkum bimaanzala Allahu faola-ika humu alfasiqoona
A 5:47 وليحكم اهل الانجيل بما انزل الله فيه ومن لم يحكم بما انزل الله فاولئك هم الفسقون
Edip-Layth 5:48 We have sent down to you the book with truth, authenticating what is present of the book and superseding it. So judge between them by what God has sent down, and do not follow their desires from what has come to you of the truth. For each of you We have made laws, a structure. Had God willed, He would have made you all one nation, but He tests you with what He has given you, so advance the good deeds. To God you will return all of you, and He will inform you regarding that in which you dispute.13
The Monotheist Group 5:48 And We have sent down to you the Scripture with truth, authenticating what is present of the Scripture and superseding it. So judge between them by what God has sent down, and do not follow their desires from what has come to you of the truth. For each of you We have made laws, and a structure; and had God willed, He would have made you all one nation, but He tests you with what He has given you; so strive to do good. To God you will return all of you, and He will inform you regarding that in which you dispute.
Muhammad Asad 5:48 And unto thee [O Prophet] have We vouchsafed this divine writ, setting forth the truth, confirming the truth of whatever there still remains of earlier revelations and determining what is true therein.64 Judge, then, between the followers of earlier revelation in accordance with what God has bestowed from on high,65 and do not follow their errant views, forsaking the truth that has come unto thee. Unto every one of you have We appointed a [different] law and way of life.66 And if God had so willed, He could surely have made you all one single community: but [He willed it otherwise] in order to test you by means of what He has vouchsafed unto, you.67 Vie, then, with one another in doing good works! Unto God you all must return; and then He will make you truly understand all that on which you were wont to differ.68
Rashad Khalifa Quran: The Ultimate Reference 5:48 Then we revealed to you this scripture, truthfully, confirming previous scriptures, and superseding them. You shall rule among them in accordance with GOD's revelations, and do not follow their wishes if they differ from the truth that came to you. For each of you, we have decreed laws and different rites. Had GOD willed, He could have made you one congregation. But He thus puts you to the test through the revelations He has given each of you. You shall compete in righteousness. To GOD is your final destiny - all of you - then He will inform you of everything you had disputed.
Shabbir Ahmed 5:48 (O Messenger!) We have sent to you this Divine writ, setting forth the truth. It confirms the remaining truth in the earlier scriptures since it is a watcher over them. So, judge between them by what God has revealed, and do not follow their desires diverging from the truth that has come to you. For each (community) among you We have appointed certain rites and a traced-out way. If God had willed, He could have made you all one single community. But He decided to let you test yourselves by what (potentials) He has granted you. So, outdo one another in doing good to the society. To God you will all return, and He will then make you understand wherein you differed. 17
Transliteration 5:48 Waanzalna ilayka alkitaba bialhaqqimusaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi mina alkitabiwamuhayminan AAalayhi faohkum baynahum bimaanzala Allahu wala tattabiAA ahwaahum AAammajaaka mina alhaqqi likullin jaAAalna minkumshirAAatan waminhajan walaw shaa AllahulajaAAalakum ommatan wahidatan walakin liyabluwakumfeema atakum faistabiqoo alkhayratiila Allahi marjiAAukum jameeAAan fayunabbi-okum bimakuntum feehi takhtalifoona
A 5:48 وانزلنا اليك الكتب بالحق مصدقا لما بين يديه من الكتب ومهيمنا عليه فاحكم بينهم بما انزل الله ولا تتبع اهواءهم عما جاءك من الحق لكل جعلنا منكم شرعة ومنهاجا ولو شاء الله لجعلكم امة وحدة ولكن ليبلوكم فى ما ءاتىكم فاستبقوا الخيرت الى الله مرجعكم جميعا فينبئكم بما كنتم فيه تختلفون
End Notes
Muhammad Asad - The Message Of Quran
Muhammad Asad - End Note 49 (5:39)
Le., by restituting the stolen goods before being apprehended by the authorities (Manar VI, 382).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 50 (5:41)
Lit., "from among those".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 51 (5:41)
Although this verse is, in the first instance, addressed to the Prophet, it concerns all followers of the Qur'an and is, therefore, valid for all times. The same observation applies to the people of whom this verse speaks: although it mentions only the hypocrites and the Jews, it refers, by implication, to all people who are prejudiced against Islam and willingly lend ear to any false statement about its teachings, preferring to listen to unfriendly non-Muslim "experts" rather than to turn to the Qur'an itself for enlightenment-which is the meaning of the phrase, "without having come to thee [O Muhammad]".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 52 (5:41)
I.e., they are prepared to accept such of the Qur'anic teachings as might suit their preconceived notions, but are not prepared to accept anything that goes against their own inclinations.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 53 (5:41)
This connects with the beginning of this verse; hence my interpolation. For the meaning of fitnah, see surah 8, note 25.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 54 (5:42)
The noun suht is derived from the verb sahata, "he utterly destroyed [a thing]", and signifies, primarily, the "doing of anything that leads to destruction" because it is abominable and, therefore, forbidden (Lisan al-Arab). Hence, it denotes anything that is evil itself. In the above context, the intensive expression akkalun li's-suht may denote "those who greedily devour all that is forbidden" (i.e., illicit gain), or, more probably, "those who greedily swallow all that is evil" - i.e., every false statement made about the Qur'an by its enemies with a view to destroying its impact.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 55 (5:42)
I.e., as to what is right and what is wrong in the sight of God. Most of the commentators assume that this passage refers to a specific judicial case, or cases, which the Jews of Medina brought before the Prophet for decision; but in view of the inherent Qur'anic principle that every historical reference contained in it has also a general import, I rather believe that the "judgment" alluded to in this verse relates to deciding as to whether any of their beliefs-other than those which the Qur'an explicitly confirms or rejects-is right or wrong.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 56 (5:42)
I.e., on the basis of the ethical laws revealed by God, and not personal, arbitrary likes or dislikes.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 57 (5:43)
This verse illustrates the strange mentality of the Jews, who-despite the fact that they believe the, Torah to contain all of the Divine Law - surreptitiously turn to a religious dispensation in which they do not believe. in the hope that its verdict on certain ethical questions might confirm some of their own wishful beliefs which happen to run counter to the Torah. In other words, they are not really prepared to submit to the judgment of the Torah-although they assert their belief in it -nor the judgment of the Qur'an, which confirms some of the laws of the Torah and abrogates others: for, as soon as they come to realize that the Qur'an does not agree with their preconceived ideas, they turn away from it.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 58 (5:44)
Implying that the Law of Moses (the Torah) was intended only for the children of Israel, and was never meant to have universal validity.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 59 (5:44)
The expression "some of God's writ (kitab)" implies that the Torah did not exhaust the whole of God's revelation, and that more was yet to be revealed. For an explanation of the term rabbaniyun, see surah 3, note 62.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 60 (5:44)
I.e., for the illusory feeling of superiority based on the spurious belief that the children of Israel are "God's chosen people" and, therefore, the sole recipients of God's grace and revelation. The "messages" referred to in this sentence relate to the Qur'an as well as to the Biblical prophecies concerning the advent of Muhammad.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 61 (5:45)
See Exodus xxi, 23 ff., where details of the extremely harsh penalties provided under Mosaic Law are given in accordance with their

Muhammad Asad - End Note 62 (5:45)
Lit., "it shall be an atonement for him". The Pentateuch does not contain this call to forgiveness which is brought out with great clarity not only in the Qur'an but also in the teachings of Jesus; especially in the Sermon on the Mount: and this, read in conjunction with the following verses, would seem to be an allusion to the time-bound quality of Mosaic Law. Alternatively, the above admonition may have been part of the original teachings of the Torah which have been subsequently corrupted or deliberately abandoned by its followers, whom the Qur'an accuses of "distorting the meaning of the revealed words" (see verse 41 above).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 63 (5:46)
Regarding the meaning of ma bayna yadayhi (lit., "that which was between his [or "its"] hands") occurring twice in this verse, as well as in verse 48, see surah 3, note 3.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 64 (5:48)
The participle muhaymin is derived from the quadriliteral verb haymana, "he watched [over a thing]" or "controlled [it]", and is used here to describe the Qur'an as the determinant factor in deciding what is genuine and what is false in the earlier scriptures (see Manar VI, 410 ff.).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 65 (5:48)
Lit., "judge, then, between them. . .", etc. This apparently applies not merely to judicial cases but also to opinions as to what is right or wrong in the ethical sense (see note 55 above'). As is evident from the mention of the "followers of the Gospel" in the preceding verse, and of the Torah in the earlier passages, the people spoken of here are both the Jews and the Christians.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 66 (5:48)
The expression "every one of you" denotes the various communities of which mankind is composed. The term shir`ah (or shari'ah) signifies, literally, "the way to a watering-place" (from which men and animals derive the element indispensable to their life), and is used in the Qur'an to denote a system of law necessary for a community's social and spiritual welfare. The term minhaj, on the other hand, denotes an "open road", usually in an abstract sense: that is, "a way of life". The terms shir'ah and minhaj are more restricted in their meaning than the term din, which comprises not merely the laws relating to a particular religion but also the basic, unchanging spiritual truths which, according to the Qur'an, have been preached by every one of God's apostles, while the particular body of laws (shir'ah or shari'ah) promulgated through them, and the way of life (minhaj) recommended by them, varied in accordance with the exigencies of the time and of each community's cultural development. This "unity in diversity" is frequently stressed in the Qur'an (e.g., in the first sentence of 2:148, in 21:92-93, or in 23:52 ff.). Because of the universal applicability and textual incorruptibility of its teachings-as well as of the fact that the Prophet Muhammad is "the seal of all prophets", i.e., the last of them (see 33:40) -the Qur'an represents the culminating point of all revelation and offers the final, perfect way to spiritual fulfilment. This uniqueness of the Qur'anic message does not, however, preclude all adherents of earlier faiths from attaining to God's grace: for-as the Qur'an so often points out-those among them who believe uncompromisingly in the One God and the Day of Judgment (i.e., in individual moral responsibility) and live righteously "need have no fear, and neither shall they grieve".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 67 (5:48)
I.e., "in order to test, by means of the various religious laws imposed on you, your willingness to surrender yourselves to God and to obey Him" (Zamakhshari, Razi), "and thus to enable you to grow, spiritually and socially, in accordance with the God-willed law of evolution" (Manar VI, 418 f.).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 68 (5:48)
Lit., "inform you of that wherein you used to differ" (cf. surah 2, note 94). Thus, the Qur'an impresses upon all who believe in God - Muslims and non-Muslims alike - that the differences in their religious practices should make them "vie with one another in doing good works" rather than lose themselves in mutual hostility.

Shabbir Ahmed -
Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 14 (5:39)
If the hands are cut off, where are the making amends, pardon and mercy?

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 15 (5:45)
See 5:41. That was a time-bound Mosaic law specific to the Israelites. The Final revelation of God, the Qur'an has updated laws for all humanity for all Times. Incidentally, Exodus in the Bible, as seen today, does not leave room for forgiveness on the subject

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 16 (5:46)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 17 (5:48)
2:101, 2:148, 21:92-93, 23:52. Muhaimin = Watcher. Shari'ah = Rites = Usual, diverse trends of a community. Minhaaj = A traced-out way = A set of laws

Edip-Layth - Quran: A Reformist Translation
Edip-Layth - End Note 10 (5:42)
This verse alone is an answer to those who consider Muhammad to be God's partner in legislation (hukm); the messenger was not a co- legislator (shari) of Islam. A group of Jews who sought Muhammad to judge among them was criticized for not referring to the Bible. The criticism, as it seems, had two reasons: Muhammad was not a legislator in the divine sense. Moreover, they should not jurisdiction-shop; they should stick with the laws they had agreed to apply in their community. It seems that no Muslim during the time of Muhammad demonstrated the ignorance of seeking Muhammad's judgment on matters expressed in the Quran. No wonder, 6:114; 98:5 and many other verses emphasize that the authority in Islamic system is God alone. However, when issues do not involve universal and absolute divine rules, muslims should refer to their elected officials and their appointees. Since Muhammad was the elected leader of the city-state of Yathrib, which had multiple jurisdictions accommodating a racially and religiously diverse population, he was in position to make judgments in daily affairs and the application of its secular Constitution. See 4:60. In brief, God alone has the power to legislate the universal laws of islam, and the leaders elected by muslims should follow those laws. They may issue laws, as long as they do not contradict universal laws issued by God, after consultation, and subject to change whenever the society wishes so. For Biblical verses on "laws," see Genesis 26:5; Exodus 16:28; 18:16,20; Leviticus 26:46; Ezra 7:25; Nehemiah 9:13-14; Esther 1:19; Psalms 105:45; Isaiah 24:5; Ezekiel 43:11; 44:5,24; Daniel 7:25; 9:10; Hebrews 8:10; 10:16.

Edip-Layth - End Note 11 (5:44)
The Torah is known as the name of the book given to Moses. However, this common knowledge might be wrong. The Quran nowhere mentions that the Torah was given to Moses. The word Torah occurs 18 times in the Quran and it refers to the collection of books given to Jewish prophets excluding the Injeel delivered by Jesus. Though the name of the book(s) given to Moses is not mentioned, it is described with various adjectives such as Furqan (the distinguisher), Emam (the leader), Rahma (mercy), Noor (light) and Huda (guidance). There is ample scholarly work indicating that current books of the Old Testament were extensively tampered with and written by Ezra and other rabbis. See 2:59; 2:79; 9:30-31. Also, see the Old Testament, Jeremiah 8:8.

Edip-Layth - End Note 12 (5:45)
Compare it to Exodus 21:24-36. Though the Old Testament version contains many more instructions, it does not mention the Quranic version reminding the Children of Israel that remission or giving up the punishment is a better choice. The Quranic version of the Old Testament rule is the Golden-plated Brazen rule, or "Generous tit-for-tat" which is the most effective moral rule in the real world. See 9:2-29. Also see 8:61; 4:90; 41:34.

Edip-Layth - End Note 13 (5:48)
Prophet Muhammad was not judging among people according to divine instructions besides the Quran. The Quran was the only divine authority. However, decades after Muhammad, those who turned away from the Quran turned Muhammad himself into a competing, supplementing, or contradicting authority through hadith collections and thereby regressed to the days of ignorance. The system belongs to God alone. Muhammad's sole mission was to deliver God's system to humanity. See 6:19, 112-116.

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