15:23-24 It is we who control life and death, and we are the ultimate inheritors. And we fully know those among you who advance, and we fully know those who regress.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
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Edip-Layth In Case of Disloyalty 4:34 The men are to support the women by what God has gifted them over one another and for what they spend of their money. The reformed women are devotees and protectors of privacy what God has protected. As for those women from whom you fear disloyalty, then you shall advise them, abandon them in the bedchamber, and separate them; if they obey you, then do not seek a way over them; God is High, Great.14
The Monotheist Group 4:34 The men are to support the women by what God has bestowed on them over one another and for what they spend of their money. The upright women are dutiful; keeping private the personal matters for what God keeps watch over. As for those women from whom you fear desertion, then you shall advise them, and abandon them in the bedchamber, and separate from them. If they respond to you, then do not seek a way over them; God is High, Great.
Muhammad Asad 4:34 MEN SHALL take full care of women with the bounties which God has bestowed more abundantly on the former than on the latter,42 and with what they may spend out of their possessions. And the right­eous women are the truly devout ones, who guard the intimacy which God has [ordained to be] guar­ded.43 And as for those women whose ill-will44 you have reason to fear, admonish them [first]; then leave them alone in bed; then beat them;45 and if thereupon they pay you heed, do not seek to harm them. Behold, God is indeed most high, great!
Rashad Khalifa Do Not Beat Your Wife 4:34 The men are made responsible for the women, 8 and GOD has endowed them with certain qualities, and made them the bread earners. The righteous women will cheerfully accept this arrangement, since it is GOD's commandment, and honor their husbands during their absence. If you experience rebellion from the women, you shall first talk to them, then (you may use negative incentives like) deserting them in bed, then you may (as a last alternative) beat them. If they obey you, you are not permitted to transgress against them. GOD is Most High, Supreme.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:34 Men are the protectors and supporters of women. They shall take full care of women with what they spend of their wealth. God has made men to excel in some areas and women to excel in some areas. Men should ensure that women are able to stand at their feet in the society. So, righteous women are obedient to God's Ordinances and guard the moral values even in privacy, the values that God has commanded to be guarded. If you experience ill-treatment from them, apprise them of possible consequences. Next, leave them in their resting places, but keep admonishing them with examples. If they pay heed to you, do not seek a way against them. God is Most High, Great. 12
Transliteration 4:34 Alrrijalu qawwamoonaAAala alnnisa-i bima faddalaAllahu baAAdahum AAala baAAdin wabimaanfaqoo min amwalihim faalssalihatu qanitatunhafithatun lilghaybi bima hafithaAllahu waallatee takhafoonanushoozahunna faAAithoohunna waohjuroohunnafee almadajiAAi waidriboohunna fa-in ataAAnakumfala tabghoo AAalayhinna sabeelan inna Allaha kanaAAaliyyan kabeeran
A 4:34 الرجال قومون على النساء بما فضل الله بعضهم على بعض وبما انفقوا من امولهم فالصلحت قنتت حفظت للغيب بما حفظ الله والتى تخافون نشوزهن فعظوهن واهجروهن فى المضاجع واضربوهن فان اطعنكم فلا تبغوا عليهن سبيلا ان الله كان عليا كبيرا
Edip-Layth 4:35 If you fear a split between them, then send a judge from his family and a judge from hers. If they want to reconcile, then God will bring them together. God is Knowledgeable, Ever-aware.15
The Monotheist Group 4:35 And if you fear a permanent rift between them, then send a judge from his family and a judge from hers. If they want to reconcile, then God will bring them together. God is Knowledgeable, Expert.
Muhammad Asad 4:35 And if you have reason to fear that a breach might occur between a [married] couple, appoint an arbiter from among his people and an arbiter from among her people; if they both want to set things aright, God may bring about their reconciliation. Be­hold, God is indeed all-knowing, aware.
Rashad Khalifa Marriage Arbitration 4:35 If a couple fears separation, you shall appoint an arbitrator from his family and an arbitrator from her family; if they decide to reconcile, GOD will help them get together. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:35 (Families and communities must adopt a proactive approach regarding a husband and a wife in discord.) If you fear a breach between the two of them (husband and wife), appoint two arbiters, one from his family and one from her family. If they decide to reconcile, God will help them get together. Surely, God is Knower, Aware. 13
Transliteration 4:35 Wa-in khiftum shiqaqa baynihimafaibAAathoo hakaman min ahlihi wahakaman minahliha in yureeda islahan yuwaffiqiAllahu baynahuma inna Allaha kanaAAaleeman khabeeran
A 4:35 وان خفتم شقاق بينهما فابعثوا حكما من اهله وحكما من اهلها ان يريدا اصلحا يوفق الله بينهما ان الله كان عليما خبيرا
Edip-Layth 4:36 Serve God and do not set up anything with Him, and be kind to the parents, and the relatives, and the needy, and the neighbor who is of kin, and the neighbor next door, and close friend, and the traveler, and those with whom you have contractual rights. God does not like the arrogant, the boastful.16
The Monotheist Group 4:36 And serve God and do not set up anything with Him, and be kind to the parents, and the relatives, and the needy, and the neighbor who is of kin, and the neighbor next door, and the friend far away, and the traveler, and those committed to you by oath. God does not like the arrogant, the boastful.
Muhammad Asad 4:36 AND WORSHIP God [alone], and do not ascribe divinity, in any way, to aught beside Him.46 And do good unto your parents, and near of kin, and unto orphans, and the needy, and the neighbour from among your own people, and the neighbour who is a stranger,47 and the friend by your side, and the wayfarer, and those whom you rightfully possess.48 Verily, God does not love any of those who, full of self-conceit, act in a boastful manner;
Rashad Khalifa Major Commandments 4:36 You shall worship GOD alone - do not associate anything with Him. You shall regard the parents, the relatives, the orphans, the poor, the related neighbor, the unrelated neighbor, the close associate, the traveling alien, and your servants. GOD does not like the arrogant show-offs.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:36 Obey God and associate no partner with Him! -Treat kindly your parents, relatives, -The orphans, -And those who have been left alone in the society. -Take care of the needy, -The disabled, - Those whose hard earned income is insufficient to meet their needs, -And those whose businesses have stalled, -And those who have lost their jobs. -You shall treat kindly your related neighbors, -And unrelated neighbors, -Companions by your side in public gatherings, -Or public transportation. -Be generous to the needy wayfarer, -the homeless son of the street, -and the one who reaches you in a destitute condition. - Be nice to people who work under your care. God does not love the proud and boastful.
Transliteration 4:36 WaoAAbudoo Allaha walatushrikoo bihi shay-an wabialwalidayni ihsananwabithee alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeeniwaaljari thee alqurba waaljarialjunubi waalssahibi bialjanbi waibnialssabeeli wama malakat aymanukum inna Allahala yuhibbu man kana mukhtalan fakhooran
A 4:36 واعبدوا الله ولا تشركوا به شيا وبالولدين احسنا وبذى القربى واليتمى والمسكين والجار ذى القربى والجار الجنب والصاحب بالجنب وابن السبيل وما ملكت ايمنكم ان الله لا يحب من كان مختالا فخورا
Edip-Layth Philanthropy and God's Justice 4:37 Those who are stingy and order the people to stinginess, and they conceal what God has given them from His bounty. We have prepared for these ingrates a painful retribution.
The Monotheist Group 4:37 Those who are stingy and order the people to stinginess, and they conceal what God has given them from His bounty. We have prepared for these disbelievers a painful retribution.
Muhammad Asad 4:37 [nor] those who are niggardly, and bid others to be niggardly, and conceal whatever God has bestowed upon them out of His bounty; and so We have readied shameful suffering for all who thus deny the truth.
Rashad Khalifa 4:37 The ones who are stingy, exhort the people to be stingy, and conceal what GOD has bestowed upon them from His bounties. We have prepared for the disbelievers a shameful retribution.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:37 Those who are stingy and advise others to be stingy, and hide what God has given them of His bounty, for such ungrateful disbelievers We have prepared a humiliating punishment.
Transliteration 4:37 Allatheena yabkhaloona waya/muroona alnnasabialbukhli wayaktumoona ma atahumuAllahu min fadlihi waaAAtadna lilkafireenaAAathaban muheenan
A 4:37 الذين يبخلون ويامرون الناس بالبخل ويكتمون ما ءاتىهم الله من فضله واعتدنا للكفرين عذابا مهينا
Edip-Layth 4:38 Those who spend their money to show-off to the people, and they do not acknowledge God or the Last day. Whoever has the devil as his companion, then what a miserable companion!
The Monotheist Group 4:38 And those who spend their money to show-off to the people, and they do not believe in God or the Last Day. And whoever has the devil as his companion, then what a miserable companion!
Muhammad Asad 4:38 And [God does not love] those who spend their possessions on others [only] to be seen and praised by men, the while they believe neither in God nor in the Last Day; and he who has Satan for a soul-mate, how evil a soul-mate has he!49
Rashad Khalifa 4:38 They give money to charity only to show off, while disbelieving in GOD and the Last Day. If one's companion is the devil, that is the worst companion.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:38 They give money to charity only to show off, and do not believe in God and the Last Day. Such people have taken Satan, their selfish desires, as their intimate companion. What a terrible companion it is!
Transliteration 4:38 Waallatheena yunfiqoona amwalahumri-aa alnnasi wala yu/minoona biAllahiwala bialyawmi al-akhiri waman yakuni alshshaytanulahu qareenan fasaa qareenan
A 4:38 والذين ينفقون امولهم رئاء الناس ولا يومنون بالله ولا باليوم الءاخر ومن يكن الشيطن له قرينا فساء قرينا
Edip-Layth 4:39 What would bother them if they acknowledged God and the Last day and spent from God's provisions? God is aware of them.
The Monotheist Group 4:39 What would bother them if they believed in God and the Last Day and spent from God's provisions? God is aware of them.
Muhammad Asad 4:39 And what would they have to fear50 if they would but believe in God and the Last Day, and spend [in His way] out of what God has granted them as sustenance - since God has indeed full knowledge of them?
Rashad Khalifa 4:39 Why do they not believe in GOD and the Last Day, and give from GOD's provisions to them? GOD is fully aware of them.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:39 What do they have to fear if they believe in God and the Last Day and spend of what God has given them? God is ever Aware of them.
Transliteration 4:39 Wamatha AAalayhim law amanoobiAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiriwaanfaqoo mimma razaqahumu Allahu wakana Allahubihim AAaleeman
A 4:39 وماذا عليهم لو ءامنوا بالله واليوم الءاخر وانفقوا مما رزقهم الله وكان الله بهم عليما
Edip-Layth 4:40 Indeed, God does not wrong an atom's weight; and if it is good He will double it. He grants from Himself a great reward.
The Monotheist Group 4:40 Indeed, God does not wrong an atom's weight; and if it is good He will double it. And He grants from Himself a great reward.
Muhammad Asad 4:40 Verily, God does not wrong [anyone] by as much as an atom's weight; and if there be a good deed, He will multiply it, and will bestow out of His grace51 a mighty reward.
Rashad Khalifa Divine Justice 4:40 GOD does not inflict an atom's weight of injustice. On the contrary, He multiplies the reward manifold for the righteous work, and grants from Him a great recompense.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:40 God wrongs not anyone even the weight of an atom; and He multiplies a good deed, and from His Own Presence grants a great reward.
Transliteration 4:40 Inna Allaha la yathlimumithqala tharratin wa-in taku hasanatan yudaAAifhawayu/ti min ladunhu ajran AAatheeman
A 4:40 ان الله لا يظلم مثقال ذرة وان تك حسنة يضعفها ويوت من لدنه اجرا عظيما
Edip-Layth 4:41 How is it then when We bring forth from every nation a witness, and bring you as a witness over these?17
The Monotheist Group 4:41 How is it then when We bring forth from every nation a witness, and bring you as a witness over these?
Muhammad Asad 4:41 How, then, [will the sinners fare on Judgment Day,] when We shall bring forward witnesses from within every community,52 and bring thee [O Prophet] as witness against them?
Rashad Khalifa 4:41 Thus, when the day (of judgment) comes, we will call upon a witness from each community, and you (the messenger) will serve as a witness among these people.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:41 How will it be with them when (on the Resurrection Day) We bring from every community a witness (their prophet 10:47), and We bring you (O Messenger!), a witness among these people (your contemporaries)? 14
Transliteration 4:41 Fakayfa itha ji/na min kulliommatin bishaheedin waji/na bika AAala haola-ishaheedan
A 4:41 فكيف اذا جئنا من كل امة بشهيد وجئنا بك على هولاء شهيدا
Edip-Layth 4:42 On that day those who rejected and disobeyed the messenger will wish that the earth would swallow them; but they cannot hide anything said from God.
The Monotheist Group 4:42 On that Day those who rejected and disobeyed the messenger will wish that the Earth would swallow them; but they cannot hide anything said from God.
Muhammad Asad 4:42 Those who were bent on denying the truth and paid no heed to the Apostle will on that Day wish that the earth would swallow them:53 but they shall not [be able to] conceal from God anything that has happened.
Rashad Khalifa 4:42 On that day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the messenger will wish that they were level with the ground; not a single utterance will they be able to hide from GOD.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:42 On that Day, those who denied the truth and paid no heed to the messenger will wish that they were level with the ground. But not a single utterance or event could they hide from God.
Transliteration 4:42 Yawma-ithin yawaddu allatheenakafaroo waAAasawoo alrrasoola law tusawwabihimu al-ardu wala yaktumoona Allaha hadeethan
A 4:42 يومئذ يود الذين كفروا وعصوا الرسول لو تسوى بهم الارض ولا يكتمون الله حديثا
Edip-Layth Ablution for Contact prayer (sala) 4:43 O you who acknowledge, do not come near the contact prayer while you are drunk, until you know what you are saying. Nor if you have had intercourse, unless traveling, until you bathe. If you are ill, or traveling, or one of you come from the bathroom, or you had sexual contact with the women, and could not find water: then you shall seek clean soil and wipe your faces and hands. God is Pardoning, Forgiving.18
The Monotheist Group 4:43 O you who believe, do not approach the communion while you are intoxicated, until you know what you are saying. Nor if you have had intercourse, unless traveling, until you bathe. And if you are ill, or traveling, or one of you has excreted feces, or you had sexual contact with the women, and could not find water, then you shall select from the clean soil; you shall wipe your faces and hands. God is Pardoning, Forgiving.
Muhammad Asad 4:43 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not attempt to pray while you are in a state of drunkenness,54 [but wait] until you know what you are saying; nor yet [while you are] in a state requiring total ablution,55 until you have bathed - except if you are travelling [and are unable to do so]. But if you are ill, or are travelling, or have just satisfied a want of nature,56 or have cohabited with a woman, and can find no water - then take resort to pure dust, passing [there­with] lightly over your face and your hands.57 Behold, God is indeed an absolver of sins, much-forgiving.
Rashad Khalifa What Nullifies Ablution 4:43 O you who believe, do not observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) while intoxicated, so that you know what you are saying. Nor after sexual orgasm without bathing, unless you are on the road, traveling; if you are ill or traveling, or you had urinary or fecal-related excretion (such as gas), or contacted the women (sexually), and you cannot find water, you shall observe Tayammum (dry ablution) by touching clean dry soil, then wiping your faces and hands therewith. GOD is Pardoner, Forgiver.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:43 (Those who attain belief shall promptly establish the Divine System in the community, and the Masjid would assume the role of the community center. The believers will assemble in the Masjid for prayer, and to address social welfare and community action). O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Join not the Salaat congregation if your mind is beclouded for any reason, until you understand what you utter, else you might say senseless words that disturb the assembly. Physical cleanliness contributes to moral purity. So, take a bath after ceremonial impurity (post-coital state) If you are traveling, or are ill, or coming from the privy, and cannot find water, take a little clean sand or earth and lightly rub your faces and hands, before entering the Masjid. (This will help you prepare psychologically for the assembly (5:6). God pardons and absolves your imperfections.
Transliteration 4:43 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola taqraboo alssalata waantum sukarahatta taAAlamoo ma taqooloona walajunuban illa AAabiree sabeelin hattataghtasiloo wa-in kuntum marda aw AAala safarin awjaa ahadun minkum mina algha-iti aw lamastumualnnisaa falam tajidoo maan fatayammamoo saAAeedantayyiban faimsahoo biwujoohikum waaydeekuminna Allaha kana AAafuwwan ghafooran
A 4:43 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تقربوا الصلوة وانتم سكرى حتى تعلموا ما تقولون ولا جنبا الا عابرى سبيل حتى تغتسلوا وان كنتم مرضى او على سفر او جاء احد منكم من الغائط او لمستم النساء فلم تجدوا ماء فتيمموا صعيدا طيبا فامسحوا بوجوهكم وايديكم ان الله كان عفوا غفورا
End Notes
Edip-Layth - Quran: A Reformist Translation
Edip-Layth - End Note 14 (4:34)
As I discussed extensively, in Türkçe Kuran Çevirilerindeki Hatalar (Errors in Turkish Translation of the Quran, Istanbul, 1992-1998) and in English article, Beating Women or Beating Around the Bush (Unorthodox Articles, Internet, 1998), four key words or phrases have been mistranslated by traditional translators. To justify the misogynistic and patriarchal practices, deliberately or unknowingly, a majority of translators render the phrase kawamuna ala al-nisa as "in charge of women" rather than "providers for women" or "observant of women." Interestingly, the same translators translate the same verb mentioned in 4:135; 5:8; 4:127; 2:229; 20:14; 55:9 as "observe/maintain." When the same verb is used to depict a relationship between man and woman, it somehow magically transforms into a prescription of hierarchy and authority. The second key word that is commonly mistranslated is iDRiBuhunna. In almost all translations, you will see it translated as "scourge," or "beat" or "beat (lightly)". The verb DaRaBa is a multiple-meaning verb akin to English ‘strike’ or ‘get.’ The Quran uses the same verb with various meanings, such as, to travel, to get out (3:156; 4:101; 38:44; 73:20; 2:273), to strike (2:60,73; 7:160; 8:12; 20:77; 24:31; 26:63; 37:93; 47:4), to beat (8:50), to beat or regret (47:27), to set up (43:58; 57:13), to give (examples) (14:24,45; 16:75,76,112; 18:32,45; 24:35; 30:28,58; 36:78; 39:27,29; 43:17; 59:21; 66:10,11), to take away, to ignore (43:5), to condemn (2:61), to seal, to draw over (18:11), to cover (24:31), and to explain (13:17). It is again interesting that the scholars pick the meaning BEAT, among the many other alternatives, when the relationship between man and woman is involved, a relationship that is defined by the Quran with mutual love and care (30:21). The third word that has been traditionally mistranslated is the word NuSHuZ as "rebellion" or "disobedience" or "opposition" to men. If we study 4:34 carefully we will find a clue that leads us to translate that word as embracing a range of related ideas, from "flirting" to "engaging in an extramarital affair" – indeed, any word or words that reflects the range of disloyalty in marriage. The clue is the phrase before nushuz, which reads: ". . . they honor them according to God's commandments, even when alone in their privacy." This phrase emphasizes the importance of loyalty in marital life, and helps us to make better sense of what follows. Interestingly, the same word, nushuz, is used later in the same chapter, in 4:128 – but it is used to describe the misbehavior of husbands, not wives, as it was in 4:34. In our view, the traditional translation of nushuz, that is, "opposition," will not fit in both contexts. However, the understanding of nushuz as marital disloyalty, in a variety of forms, is clearly appropriate for both 4:34 and 4:128. The fourth word is the word QaNiTat, which means "devoted to God," and in some verses it describes both man and woman (2:116,238; 3:17,43; 16:120; 30:26; 33:31,35; 39:9; 66:5,12). Though this word is mostly translated correctly as "obedient," when read in the context of the above-mentioned distortion it conveys a false message as if to imply that women must be "obedient" to their husbands as their inferior, while the word refers to obedience to God's law. The word is mentioned as a general description of Muslim women (66:12), and more interestingly the description of Mary who, according to the Quran, did not even have a husband! (66:12). The traditional distortion of this verse was first questioned by Edip Yuksel in his book, "Kuran Çevirilerindeki Hatalar" (Errors in Turkish Translations) (1992, Istanbul). For a detailed discussion on verse 4:34, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction. After the revelation of the Quran, Muslim scholars turned back to the days of ignorance and they were supported by some Jewish and Christian scholars who apparently converted to Islam yet did not experience a paradigm change. These semi-converts and those Arabs who longed for the old culture of ignorance combined their forces together to take back the rights of women recognized and promoted by the Quran. The rights of women in the West have been recognized through the separation of church and state; however the culture is still basically a male dominant one and thus western women are objectified and exploited tremendously in the business world. The western culture is deeply influenced by the teaching of Christianity originating from the misogynistic authors of Old Testament and St. Paul (not Jesus) who subordinates women to men. For instance, see Ephesians 5:22-33; Colossians 3:18- 19; 1 Peter 3:1-7. "Let your women keep silent in the churches, for they are not permitted to speak; but they are to be submissive, as the law also says" (I Corinthians 14: 34). "For a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn. But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her be covered. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man. For man is not from woman, but woman from man. Nor was man created for the woman, but woman for the man" (I Corinthians 11:6-9). "Let a women learn in silence with all submission. And do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression. Nevertheless, she will be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love and holiness, with self-control" (I Timothy 2:11- 15). St. Paul's misogynistic teaching is a reflection and extension of a historical trend. The Old Testament contains many man-made misogynist teachings. For instance, a woman is considered unclean for one week if she gives birth to a son, but unclean for two weeks if she gives birth to a daughter (Leviticus 12:1- 5). The Quran prohibits a sexual relationship with a menstruating woman, not because she is dirty, but because menstruation is painful (2:222). The purpose is to protect women's health from being burdened by the sexual desires of their husbands. However, the male authors of the Old Testament, exaggerated and generalized this divine prohibition so much so that they turned menstruation into a reason for a woman’s humiliation, isolation, and punishment (Leviticus 15:19-33). Christianity puts all the blame on the shoulders of women for the troubles in this world. Yet, according to the Quran, we are created from one person (nafs), not one man (4:1). Furthermore, it was not Eve, but it was both Adam and his spouse who were deceived in the Paradise (2:30-39; 7:19-27). The Old Testament contains hyperbolic exaggerations and bizarre practices. For some examples, See the footnote of 4:119.

Edip-Layth - End Note 15 (4:35)
It is clear that divorce does not occur by some magic words uttered by the husband. Furthermore, woman is mentioned as one of the parties whose wish is equally important in case of divorce. See 2:226-230.

Edip-Layth - End Note 16 (4:36)
Keeping the family ties, cooperation, and humbleness are among the traits recommended by God (2:83; 3:92; 17:22-37).

Edip-Layth - End Note 17 (4:41)
For Muhammad's testimony, see 25:30.

Edip-Layth - End Note 18 (4:43)
The followers of hadith and sunna reject this statement by claiming the presence of a contradiction between this verse and other verses prohibiting the intoxicants. Their rejection of God's verse and their allegation of contradiction in God's book are due to their ignorance of the fact that there could be individuals among muslims who consume alcoholic beverages just as there could be those who steal, commit adultery, or commit false accusation. Acknowledgement of the imperfect nature of a Muslim community does not mean that God justifies sins and crimes. Our Lord informs a Muslim who is doing wrong to himself or herself by consuming alcohol not to commit additional disrespect to God by addressing God in a drunken state of mind. Additionally, this verse indirectly gives permission to the community to not to allow their intoxicated brothers and sisters into the places of prostration. Another lesson derived from this commandment is that we should know what we are saying or reciting during our prayers. Reciting Arabic words without knowing their meanings is like praying while intoxicated. See 2:106; 4:82. Bleeding, passing gas, or shaking hands with women and other reasons mentioned in hadith and sectarian books, do not void the ablution. Despite this clear verse, Sunni and Shiite sects contain many contradictory rules about ablution. The relationship between washing hands or faces with water and mental readiness to speak to God is not scientifically obvious, but, according to a recent study conducted at the University of Toronto, washing hands may clean of a guilty conscience. See 5:6.

Muhammad Asad - The Message Of Quran
Muhammad Asad - End Note 42 (4:34)
Lit., "more on some of them than on the others".- The expression qawwam is an intensive form of qa'im ("one who is responsible for" or "takes care of" a thing or a person). Thus, qama ala l-mar'ah signifies "he undertook the maintenance of the woman" or "he maintained her" (see Lane VIII, 2995). The grammatical form qawwam is more comprehensive than qa'im, and combines the concepts of physical maintenance and protection as well as of moral responsibility: and it is because of the last-named factor that I have rendered this phrase as "men shall take full care of women".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 43 (4:34)
Lit., "who guard that which cannot be perceived (al-ghayb) because God has [willed it to be] guarded".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 44 (4:34)
The term nushuz (lit., "rebellion"- here rendered as "ill-will") comprises every kind of deliberate bad behaviour of a wife towards her husband or of a husband towards his wife, including what is nowadays described as "mental cruelty"; with reference to the husband, it also denotes "ill-treatment", in the physical sense, of his wife (cf. verse 128 of this surah). In this context, a wife's "ill-will" implies a deliberate, persistent breach of her marital obligations.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 45 (4:34)
It is evident from many authentic Traditions that the Prophet himself intensely detested the idea of beating one's wife, and said on more than one occasion, "Could any of you beat his wife as he would beat a slave, and then lie with her in the evening?" (Bukhari and Muslim). According to another Tradition, he forbade the beating of any woman with the words, "Never beat God's handmaidens" (Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Hibban and Hakim, on the authority of Iyas ibn 'Abd Allah; Ibn Hibban, on the authority of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas; and Bayhaqi, on the authority of Umm Kulthum). When the above Qur'an-verse authorizing the beating of a refractory wife was revealed, the Prophet is reported to have said: "I wanted one thing, but God has willed another thing - and what God has willed must be best" (see Manar V, 74). With all this, he stipulated in his sermon on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage, shortly before his death, that beating should be resorted to only if the wife "has become guilty, in an obvious manner, of immoral conduct", and that it should be done "in such a way as not to cause pain (ghayr mubarrih)"; authentic Traditions to this effect are found in Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i and Ibn Majah. On the basis of these Traditions, all the authorities stress that this "beating", if resorted to at all, should be more or less symbolic - "with a toothbrush, or some such thing" (Tabari, quoting the views of scholars of the earliest times), or even "with a folded handkerchief" (Razi); and some of the greatest Muslim scholars (e.g., Ash-Shafi'i) are of the opinion that it is just barely permissible, and should preferably be avoided: and they justify this opinion by the Prophet's personal feelings with regard to this problem.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 46 (4:36)
The expression shay'an (here rendered as "in any way") makes it clear that shirk ("the ascribing of divinity to anything beside God") is not confined to a worship of other "deities", but implies also the attribution of divine or quasi-divine powers to persons or objects not regarded as deities: in other words, it embraces also saint-worship, etc.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 47 (4:36)
I.e., "whether he belongs to your own or to another community". That the expression "your own people" (dhu l-qurba) refers to the community and not to one's actual relatives is obvious from the fact that "the near of kin" have already been mentioned earlier in this sentence. The Prophet often stressed a believer's moral obligation towards his neighbours, whatever their faith; and his attitude has been summed up in his words, "Whoever believes in God and the Last Day, let him do good unto his neighbour" (Bukhari, Muslim, and other compilations).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 48 (4:36)
According to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud and other Companions, "the friend by your side" (as-sahib bi'l-janb) is one's wife or husband (Tabari). By "those whom you rightfully possess" (lit., "whom your right hands possess") are meant, in this context, slaves of either sex. Since this verse enjoins the "doing of good" towards all people with whom one is in contact, and since the best that can be done to a slave is to free him, the above passage calls, elliptically, for the freeing of slaves (Manar V, 94). See also surah 2, verse 177, as well as 9:60, where the freeing of human beings from bondage is explicitly mentioned as one of the objectives to which zakah funds are to be dedicated.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 49 (4:38)
An allusion to 2:268, where Satan is spoken of as "threatening you with the prospect of poverty and bidding you to be niggardly", the implication being that those who obey him "have Satan for their soul-mate (qarin)". For the derivation of this term, see note on 41:25.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 50 (4:39)
Lit., "what is it that would be upon them". This seems to be a reference to the oft-repeated Qur'anic statement that those who believe in God and live righteously "need have no fear" (la khawf alayhim - lit., "no fear [shall be] upon them").

Muhammad Asad - End Note 51 (4:40)
Lit., "from himself "- i.e., far in excess of what the doer of good may have merited.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 52 (4:41)
I.e., the earlier apostles, of whom every community or civilization has had a share.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 53 (4:42)
Lit., "become level with them". The term "the apostle" is probably used here in its generic sense, and refers to all the apostles who preached God's message at one time or another.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 54 (4:43)
The reference to prayer at this place arises from the mention, in the preceding verses, of the Day of Judgment, when man will have to answer before God for what he did during his life in this world: for it is in prayer that man faces God, spiritually, during his earthly life, and reminds himself of his responsibility towards the Creator. As regards the prohibition of attempting to pray "while in a state of drunkenness", some of the commentators assume that this ordinance represented the first stage of the total prohibition of intoxicants, and has been, consequently, "abrogated" by the promulgation of the law of total abstinence from all intoxicants (5:90). However, quite apart from the fact that the doctrine of "abrogation" is entirely untenable (see surah 2, verse 106), there is no warrant whatever for regarding the above verse as a "first step" which has become redundant, as it were, after total prohibition was ordained. It is, of course, true that the Qur'an forbids the use of intoxicants at all times, and not merely at the time of prayer; but since "man has been created weak" (4:28), his lapse from the way of virtue is always a possibility: and it is to prevent him from adding the sin of praying while in a state of drunkenness to the sin of using intoxicants as such that the above verse was promulgated. Moreover, the expression "while you are in a state of drunkenness (sukara)" does not apply exclusively to alcoholic intoxication, since the term sukr, in its wider connotation, signifies any state of mental disequilibrium which prevents man from making full use of his intellectual faculties: that is to say, it can apply also to a temporary clouding of the intellect by drugs or giddiness or passion, as well as to the state metaphorically described as "drunk with sleep"- in brief, to any condition in which normal judgment is confused or suspended. And because the Qur'an insists throughout on consciousness as an indispensable element in every act of worship, prayer is permitted only when man is in full possession of his mental faculties and "knows what he is saying".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 55 (4:43)
I.e., after sexual intercourse. The term junub (rendered by me as "in a state requiring total ablution") is derived from the verb janaba, "he made (a thing) remote", and signifies one's remoteness from prayer because of immersion in sexual passion.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 56 (4:43)
Lit., "if one of you comes from the place in which one satisfies...", etc.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 57 (4:43)
This symbolic ablution, called tayammum, consists in touching the earth, or anything supposed to contain dust, with the palms of one's hands and then passing them lightly over face and hands. Whenever water is not within reach - or cannot be used because of illness - the tayammum takes the place of both the total ablution after sexual intercourse (ghusl) and the partial ablution before prayers (wudu).

Rashad Khalifa - The Final Testament
Rashad Khalifa - End Note 8 (4:34)
This expression simply means that God is appointing the husband as "captain of the ship." Marriage is like a ship, and the captain runs it afterdue consultation with his officers. A believing wife readily accepts God'sappointment, without mutiny.

Rashad Khalifa - End Note (4:34)

Shabbir Ahmed -
Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 12 (4:34)
Qawwam = Protector = Maintainer = One who helps others to stand at their feet. Nushooz = Ill-treatment = Rebellion = To stand up (2:259, 58:11) = To stand up against virtue = Mental abuse = Domestic violence = To rebel against the permanent moral values. Wa'az = Admonishment = To apprise of consequences (2:231, 3:66). Dharb = Example (13:17, 16:74, 36:13) = To stop or prevent (8:11, 43:5) = To embark upon a journey = Strike the road or begin to travel (4:101) = To give examples (4:34, 13:17, 16:74, 36:13, 43:58) = To withdraw (43:5)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 13 (4:35)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 14 (4:41)


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