5:75 The Messiah son of Mary, was no more than a messenger; like the messengers before him. His mother was trustworthy, and they used to eat the food. See how We clarify the signs for them, then see how they deviate.
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
 
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Edip-Layth 4:18 There will be no repentance for those who commit sin until death comes upon one of them, then he says, "I repent now!" Nor there will be repentance for those who die while they are ingrates. To those We have prepared a painful retribution.8
The Monotheist Group 4:18 And there will be no repentance for those who commit sin until death comes upon one of them, then he says: "I repent now!", nor for those who die while they are disbelievers. To those We have prepared a painful retribution.
Muhammad Asad 4:18 whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say,16 "Behold, I now repent"; nor from those who die as deniers of the truth: it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.
Rashad Khalifa 4:18 Not acceptable is the repentance of those who commit sins until death comes to them, then say, "Now I repent." Nor is it acceptable from those who die as disbelievers. For these, we have prepared a painful retribution.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:18 The forgiveness is not for those who commit transgressions until death comes to one of them, and then he says, "I repent now." (They have no time to make amends.) Nor is the forgiveness for those who die as rejecters of truth. We have prepared an awful suffering for them.
Transliteration 4:18 Walaysati alttawbatu lillatheenayaAAmaloona alssayyi-ati hatta ithahadara ahadahumu almawtu qala inneetubtu al-ana wala allatheena yamootoonawahum kuffarun ola-ika aAAtadna lahum AAathabanaleeman
A 4:18 وليست التوبة للذين يعملون السيات حتى اذا حضر احدهم الموت قال انى تبت الن ولا الذين يموتون وهم كفار اولئك اعتدنا لهم عذابا اليما
Edip-Layth Treat Women Nicely and Appreciate them 4:19 O you who acknowledge, it is not lawful for you to inherit the women by force, nor that you become harsh with them to take away some of what you have given them, unless they commit a clear lewdness. Live with them in kindness. If you dislike them, then perhaps you may dislike something and God makes in it much good.9
The Monotheist Group 4:19 O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit the women by force, nor that you become harsh with them to take away some of what you have given them, unless they commit a clear lewdness. And live with them in kindness. If you dislike them, then perhaps you may dislike something and God makes in it much good.
Muhammad Asad 4:19 O YOU who have attained to faith! It is not lawful for you to [try to] become heirs to your wives [by holding onto them] against their will;17 and neither shall you keep them under constraint with a view to taking away anything of what you may have given them, unless it be that they have become guilty, in an obvious man­ner, of immoral conduct.18 And consort with your wives19 in a goodly manner; for if you dislike them, it may well be that you dislike something which God might yet make a source of20 abundant good.
Rashad Khalifa 4:19 O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit what the women leave behind, against their will. You shall not force them to give up anything you had given them, unless they commit a proven adultery. You shall treat them nicely. If you dislike them, you may dislike something wherein GOD has placed a lot of good.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:19 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! It is not lawful for you to force women into marrying or holding on to them in marriage against their will. Pressuring women to remain in wedlock by threatening to take away the marital gift is forbidden. A wife could forfeit the right to the marital gift only if she has indulged in clear lewdness. You shall treat your wives nicely. Even if you dislike them, it may happen that God has placed much good in what you have failed to realize.
Transliteration 4:19 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola yahillu lakum an tarithoo alnnisaakarhan wala taAAduloohunna litathhaboobibaAAdi ma ataytumoohunna illa anya/teena bifahishatin mubayyinatin waAAashiroohunnabialmaAAroofi fa-in karihtumoohunna faAAasa antakrahoo shay-an wayajAAala Allahu feehi khayran katheeran
A 4:19 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا يحل لكم ان ترثوا النساء كرها ولا تعضلوهن لتذهبوا ببعض ما ءاتيتموهن الا ان ياتين بفحشة مبينة وعاشروهن بالمعروف فان كرهتموهن فعسى ان تكرهوا شيا ويجعل الله فيه خيرا كثيرا
Edip-Layth 4:20 If you wish to replace one mate instead of another, and you have given one of them a large amount, then do not take anything from it. Would you take it by falsehood while it is clearly a sin?
The Monotheist Group 4:20 And if you wish to replace one wife instead of another, and you have given one of them a large amount, then do not take anything from it. Would you take it by falsehood while it is clearly a sin?
Muhammad Asad 4:20 But if you desire to give up a wife and to take another in her stead, do not take away anything of what you have given the first one, however much it may have been.21 Would you, perchance, take it away by slandering her and thus committing a manifest sin?22
Rashad Khalifa Protection for Women 4:20 If you wish to marry another wife, in place of your present wife, and you had given any of them a great deal, you shall not take back anything you had given her. Would you take it fraudulently, maliciously, and sinfully?
Shabbir Ahmed 4:20 If you wish to marry another wife in place of your present wife, and you have given her a great deal, you shall not take back anything. Would you take it back by way of slander, a transgression that will drag down your own 'self'?
Transliteration 4:20 Wa-in aradtumu istibdala zawjin makanazawjin waataytum ihdahunna qintaranfala ta/khuthoo minhu shay-an ata/khuthoonahubuhtanan wa-ithman mubeenan
A 4:20 وان اردتم استبدال زوج مكان زوج وءاتيتم احدىهن قنطارا فلا تاخذوا منه شيا اتاخذونه بهتنا واثما مبينا
Edip-Layth 4:21 How can you take it when you have become intimate with each other, and the women have taken from you a strong covenant?
The Monotheist Group 4:21 And how can you take it when you have become intimate with each other, and the women have taken from you a strong covenant.
Muhammad Asad 4:21 And how could you take it away after you have given yourselves to one another, and she has23 received a most solemn pledge from you?
Rashad Khalifa 4:21 How could you take it back, after you have been intimate with each other, and they had taken from you a solemn pledge?
Shabbir Ahmed 4:21 And how could you take the marital gift back from her after you have lived intimately with each other and after she has taken from you a very solemn pledge of the marital contract?
Transliteration 4:21 Wakayfa ta/khuthoonahu waqad afdabaAAdukum ila baAAdin waakhathnaminkum meethaqan ghaleethan
A 4:21 وكيف تاخذونه وقد افضى بعضكم الى بعض واخذن منكم ميثقا غليظا
Edip-Layth Incest Prohibited 4:22 Do not marry what your fathers had married from the women, except what has already been done. It is lewdness, abhorrence, and a bad path.
The Monotheist Group 4:22 And do not marry what your fathers had married from the women, except what has already been done. It is a lewdness, and an abhorrence, and a bad path.
Muhammad Asad 4:22 AND DO NOT marry women whom your fathers have previously married - although what is past is past:24 this, verily, is a shameful deed, and a hateful thing, and an evil way.
Rashad Khalifa Respect for the Father 4:22 Do not marry the women who were previously married to your fathers - existing marriages are exempted and shall not be broken - for it is a gross offense, and an abominable act.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:22 Do not marry women whom your fathers ever married except what has already happened. Doing such was certainly a shameful and abominable custom.
Transliteration 4:22 Wala tankihoo ma nakahaabaokum mina alnnisa-i illa maqad salafa innahu kana fahishatan wamaqtan wasaasabeelan
A 4:22 ولا تنكحوا ما نكح ءاباوكم من النساء الا ما قد سلف انه كان فحشة ومقتا وساء سبيلا
Edip-Layth 4:23 Forbidden for you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your fathers' sisters, your mothers' sisters, the daughters of your brother, and the daughters of your sister, your foster mothers who suckled you, your sisters from suckling, the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters residing in your homes from your wives which you have already consummated the marriage with; if you have not consummated the marriage then there is no sin upon you; and the wives of your sons that are from your seed, and that you join between two sisters except what has already been done. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
The Monotheist Group 4:23 Forbidden for you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your fathers sisters, and your mothers sisters, and the daughters of your brother, and the daughters of your sister, and your foster mothers who suckled you, and your sisters from suckling, and the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters residing in your homes from your wives which you have already consummated the marriage with; if you have not consummated the marriage then there is no sin upon you; and the wives of your sons that are from your seed, and that you join between two sisters except what has already been done. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad 4:23 Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your aunts paternal and maternal, and a brother's daughters, and a sister's daughters; and your milk-mothers, and your milk-sisters; and the mothers of your wives; and your step-daughters - who are your foster children - born of your wives with whom you have consummated your marriage; but if you have not consummated your marriage, you will incur no sin [by marrying their daughters]; and [forbidden to you are] the spouses of the sons who have sprung from your loins; and [you are forbidden] to have two sisters [as your wives] at one and the same time - but what is past is past:25 for, behold, God is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
Rashad Khalifa Incest Forbidden 4:23 Prohibited for you (in marriage) are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, the sisters of your fathers, the sisters of your mothers, the daughters of your brother, the daughters of your sister, your nursing mothers, the girls who nursed from the same woman as you, the mothers of your wives, the daughters of your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage - if the marriage has not been consummated, you may marry the daughter. Also prohibited for you are the women who were married to your genetic sons. Also, you shall not be married to two sisters at the same time - but do not break up existing marriages. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:23 The following women are prohibited for you in marriage: Your mothers, daughters, sisters, father's sisters, mother's sisters, brother's daughters, sister's daughters, foster-mothers who have ever nursed you, foster-sisters, your wives' mothers, your step-daughters, unless you have divorced their mother without being intimate with her. Also forbidden are women who have ever been the wives of your sons. You are not allowed to keep two sisters in wedlock at one time except what has already happened in the past. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Transliteration 4:23 Hurrimat AAalaykum ommahatukumwabanatukum waakhawatukum waAAammatukum wakhalatukumwabanatu al-akhi wabanatu al-okhti waommahatukumuallatee ardaAAnakum waakhawatukum mina alrradaAAatiwaommahatu nisa-ikum waraba-ibukumu allateefee hujoorikum min nisa-ikumu allateedakhaltum bihinna fa-in lam takoonoo dakhaltum bihinna falajunaha AAalaykum wahala-ilu abna-ikumuallatheena min aslabikum waan tajmaAAoobayna al-okhtayni illa ma qad salafa inna Allahakana ghafooran raheeman
A 4:23 حرمت عليكم امهتكم وبناتكم واخوتكم وعمتكم وخلتكم وبنات الاخ وبنات الاخت وامهتكم التى ارضعنكم واخوتكم من الرضعة وامهت نسائكم وربئبكم التى فى حجوركم من نسائكم التى دخلتم بهن فان لم تكونوا دخلتم بهن فلا جناح عليكم وحلئل ابنائكم الذين من اصلبكم وان تجمعوا بين الاختين الا ما قد سلف ان الله كان غفورا رحيما
Edip-Layth 4:24 The women who are already married, except those whom you have contractual rights, God's book is over you; and permitted for you is what is beyond this, if you are seeking with your money to be protected and not for illicit sex. As for those whom you have already had joy with them, then you shall give them their wage as an obligation. There is no sin upon you for what you agree to after the obligation. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.10
The Monotheist Group 4:24 And the already protected from the women, except those committed to you by oath; God's scripture is over you; and permitted for you is what is beyond this, if you are seeking with your money to be protected and not for illicit sex. As for those whom you have already had joy with, then you shall give them their dowries as an obligation. There is no sin upon you for what you agree to after the obligation. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
Muhammad Asad 4:24 And [forbidden to you are] all married women other than those whom you rightfully possess [through wedlock]:26 this is God's ordinance, binding upon you. But lawful to you are all [women] beyond these, for you to seek out, offering them of your possessions,27 taking them in honest wedlock, and not in fornication. And unto those with whom you desire to enjoy marriage, you shall give the dowers due to them; but you will incur no sin if, after [having agreed upon] this lawful due, you freely agree with one another upon anything [else]:28 behold, God is indeed all-knowing, wise.
Rashad Khalifa Mutual Attraction And Dowry Required 4:24 Also prohibited are the women who are already married, unless they flee their disbelieving husbands who are at war with you. These are GOD's commandments to you. All other categories are permitted for you in marriage, so long as you pay them their due dowries. You shall maintain your morality, by not committing adultery. Thus, whoever you like among them, you shall pay them the dowry decreed for them. You commit no error by mutually agreeing to any adjustments to the dowry. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:24 Also forbidden to you are women who are already married, except those women who have sought asylum with you against their disbelieving husbands at war with you (60:10). This is God's Ordinance binding upon you. All other categories are permitted for you in marriage, with mutual consent, as confirmed by giving her a generous marital gift or dowry. You shall seek them in honest wedlock and let marriage be a fortress of chastity for the husband and wife. You shall maintain morality and go not near adultery (17:32). You like to marry women for a better quality of life, so give them their portions as a duty. And there is nothing wrong in adjusting the sum with mutual agreement after the duty has been done. These laws are given to you by God, the Knower, the Wise.
Transliteration 4:24 Waalmuhsanatu mina alnnisa-iilla ma malakat aymanukum kitaba AllahiAAalaykum waohilla lakum ma waraa thalikuman tabtaghoo bi-amwalikum muhsineena ghayra musafiheenafama istamtaAAtum bihi minhunna faatoohunnaojoorahunna fareedatan wala junaha AAalaykumfeema taradaytum bihi min baAAdi alfareedatiinna Allaha kana AAaleeman hakeeman
A 4:24 والمحصنت من النساء الا ما ملكت ايمنكم كتب الله عليكم واحل لكم ما وراء ذلكم ان تبتغوا بامولكم محصنين غير مسفحين فما استمتعتم به منهن فاتوهن اجورهن فريضة ولا جناح عليكم فيما ترضيتم به من بعد الفريضة ان الله كان عليما حكيما
Edip-Layth 4:25 Whoever of you cannot afford to marry the acknowledging independent women, then from those young women whom you have contractual rights. God is more aware of your faith; you are equal to one another. You shall marry them with the permission of their family and give them their wage in kindness, to be protected, not for illicit sex or for taking lovers. If they become protected, then any of them who come with lewdness shall have half the punishment of what is for the independent women of the retribution. This is for those who fear hardship from among you. But if you are patient it is better for you, and God is Forgiver, Compassionate.12
The Monotheist Group 4:25 And whoever of you cannot afford to marry the believing protected women, then from those committed to you by oath of the believing young women. God is more aware of your faith, some of you to each other. You shall marry them with the permission of their parents and give them their dowries in kindness; to be protected, not for illicit sex or taking lovers. If they become protected, then any of them who comes with lewdness shall have half the punishment of what is for the protected women. This is for those who fear hardship from among you. But if you are patient it is better for you, and God is Forgiver, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad 4:25 And as for those of you who, owing to cir­cumstances, are not in a position29 to marry free believing women, [let them marry] believing maidens from among those whom you rightfully possess.30 And God knows all about your faith; each one of you is an issue of the other.31 Marry them, then, with their people's leave, and give them their dowers in an equitable manner - they being women who give themselves in honest wedlock, not in fornication, nor as secret love-companions.32 And when they are married, and thereafter become guilty of immoral conduct, they shall be liable to half the penalty to which free married women are liable.33 This [permission to marry slave-girls applies] to those of you who fear lest they stumble into evil.34 But it is for your own good to persevere in patience [and to abstain from such marriages]: and God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
Rashad Khalifa 4:25 Those among you who cannot afford to marry free believing women, may marry believing slave women. GOD knows best about your belief, and you are equal to one another, as far as belief is concerned. You shall obtain permission from their guardians before you marry them, and pay them their due dowry equitably. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret lovers. Once they are freed through marriage, if they commit adultery, their punishment shall be half of that for the free women. Marrying a slave shall be a last resort for those unable to wait. To be patient is better for you. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:25 (As the Qur'an is being revealed to you O Messenger, the emancipation of the slaves, male and female, is steadily taking place.) A man among you who cannot find a free believing woman willing to marry him, should have no hesitation in asking the hand of a believing maiden from her guardian. God knows your beliefs and reiterates that all human beings are equal in the sight of God (17:70). Pay them a generous marital gift in kindness. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret relations. Since their upbringing has been deficient in the environment of slavery, their punishment will be half that of the free women, if they commit indecency after marriage. The permission to marry a bonded woman is for him who fears he might commit sin. The better recourse is freeing her first from bondage. Men and women must be patient and exercise self-control while waiting to get married. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Transliteration 4:25 Waman lam yastatiAA minkum tawlanan yankiha almuhsanati almu/minatifamin ma malakat aymanukum min fatayatikumualmu/minati waAllahu aAAlamu bi-eemanikumbaAAdukum min baAAdin fainkihoohunnabi-ithni ahlihinna waatoohunna ojoorahunna bialmaAAroofimuhsanatin ghayra masafihatin walamuttakhithati akhdanin fa-itha ohsinnafa-in atayna bifahishatin faAAalayhinna nisfu maAAala almuhsanati mina alAAathabi thalikaliman khashiya alAAanata minkum waan tasbiroo khayrunlakum waAllahu ghafoorun raheemun
A 4:25 ومن لم يستطع منكم طولا ان ينكح المحصنت المومنت فمن ما ملكت ايمنكم من فتيتكم المومنت والله اعلم بايمنكم بعضكم من بعض فانكحوهن باذن اهلهن وءاتوهن اجورهن بالمعروف محصنت غير مسفحت ولا متخذت اخدان فاذا احصن فان اتين بفحشة فعليهن نصف ما على المحصنت من العذاب ذلك لمن خشى العنت منكم وان تصبروا خير لكم والله غفور رحيم
Edip-Layth 4:26 God wants to make clear for you and guide you to the ways of those before you, and pardon you, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
The Monotheist Group 4:26 God wants to make clear for you and guide you to the ways of those before you, and pardon you, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
Muhammad Asad 4:26 God wants to make [all this] clear unto you, and to guide you onto the [righteous] ways of life of those who preceded you,35 and to turn unto you in His mercy: for God is all-knowing, wise.
Rashad Khalifa 4:26 GOD wills to explain things for you, and to guide you through past precedents, and to redeem you. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:26 God will explain to you and guide you by the examples of those who were before you, and turn to you (in mercy). God is Knower, Wise.
Transliteration 4:26 Yureedu Allahu liyubayyina lakumwayahdiyakum sunana allatheena min qablikum wayatoobaAAalaykum waAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
A 4:26 يريد الله ليبين لكم ويهديكم سنن الذين من قبلكم ويتوب عليكم والله عليم حكيم
Edip-Layth 4:27 God wants to pardon you, but those who follow their lusts want that you would be diverted into a great diversion.
The Monotheist Group 4:27 And God wants to pardon you, but those who follow desires want that you would be diverted into a great diversion.
Muhammad Asad 4:27 And God wants to turn unto you in His mercy, whereas those who follow [only] their own lusts want you to drift far away from the right path.36
Rashad Khalifa God's Mercy 4:27 GOD wishes to redeem you, while those who pursue their lusts wish that you deviate a great deviation.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:27 God turns to you in kindness, while those who follow their desires want that you drift far away from the right path. 7
Transliteration 4:27 WaAllahu yureedu an yatoobaAAalaykum wayureedu allatheena yattabiAAoona alshshahawatian tameeloo maylan AAatheeman
A 4:27 والله يريد ان يتوب عليكم ويريد الذين يتبعون الشهوت ان تميلوا ميلا عظيما
End Notes
Edip-Layth - Quran: A Reformist Translation
Edip-Layth - End Note 8 (4:18)

Edip-Layth - End Note 9 (4:19)
According to the Old Testament, a rapist should be forced to marry the girl he violated. This rule punishes the victim and forces her to share the rest of her life with the violent and shameless man who violated her (Deuteronomy 22:28-30). How can this and many other unjust laws be imposed by a Just God? The Bible also forces the widow to marry another brother (Deuteronomy 25:5).

Edip-Layth - End Note 10 (4:24)
For a discussion regarding the expression Ma malakat aymanukum, see the note for verse 4:3.

Edip-Layth - End Note 12 (4:25)
Slavery as an evil practice of Pharaoh and other polytheists is abolished by the Quran (3:79; 4:3,25,92; 5:89; 8:67; 24:32-33; 58:3; 90:13; 2:286; 12:39-42; 79:24). No wonder, this verse emphasizes the equality between men and women, between the free and those who were unjustly enslaved by polytheists. See 60:10. God issues a lighter penalty for formerly slave women who commit adultery because of their past. Their tragic history and experience is considered a mitigating factor. This rule, at the same time, rejects the Sunni and Shiite punishment for adultery (death), since there cannot be half of a capital punishment. See 24:2.

Muhammad Asad - The Message Of Quran
Muhammad Asad - End Note 16 (4:18)
Lit., "until, when death approaches one of them, he says".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 17 (4:19)
According to one of the interpretations advanced by Zamakhshari, this refers to a man's forcibly keeping an unloved wife - and thus preventing her from marrying another man - in the hope of inheriting her property under the provisions specified in the first sentence of verse 12 above. Some authorities, however, are of the opinion that the meaning is: "It is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will"- thus expressing a prohibition of the pre-Islamic custom of inheriting the wives of deceased near relatives. But in view of the fact that Islam does not permit the "inheriting" of women under any circumstances (and not only "against their will"), the former interpretation is infinitely more plausible.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 18 (4:19)
In the event that a wife's immoral conduct has been proved by the direct evidence of four witnesses, as stipulated in verse 15 above, the husband has the right, on divorcing her, to demand the return of the whole or of part of the dower which he gave her at the time when the marriage was contracted. If - as is permissible under Islamic Law - the dower has not been actually handed over to the bride at the time of marriage but has taken the form of a legal obligation on the part of the husband, he is absolved of this obligation in the case of proven immoral conduct on the part of his wife.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 19 (4:19)
Lit., "with them".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 20 (4:19)
Lit., "and God might place in it".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 21 (4:20)
Lit., "if you desire the exchange of a wife in place of a wife, and you have given one of them a treasure (qintar), do not take away anything thereof". The allusion to the "exchange" of one wife for another is a clear indication of the Qur'anic view that a monogamous marriage is the desirable norm.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 22 (4:20)
I.e., by falsely accusing her of immoral conduct in the hope of regaining her dower (see note on verse 19 above).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 23 (4:21)
Lit., "they have" - the reference being to all married women.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 24 (4:22)
Lit., "except what has come to pass earlier"- i.e., forgiven shall be he who did it before the promulgation of this Qur'anic ordinance or (in the case of a conversion in later times) before one's acceptance of Islam.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 25 (4:23)
See preceding note.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 26 (4:24)
The term muhsanah signifies literally "a woman who is fortified [against unchastity]", and carries three senses: (1) "a married woman", (2) "a chaste woman", and (3) "a free woman". According to almost all the authorities, al-muhsanat denotes in the above context "married women". As for the expression ma malakat aymanukum ("those whom your right hands possess", i.e., "those whom you rightfully possess"), it is often taken to mean female slaves captured in a war in God's cause (see in this connection 8:67, and the corresponding note). The commentators who choose this meaning hold that such slave-girls can be taken in marriage irrespective of whether they have husbands in the country of their origin or not. However, quite apart from the fundamental differences of opinion, even among the Companions of the Prophet, regarding the legality of such a marriage, some of the most outstanding commentators hold the view that ma malakat aymanukum denotes here "women whom you rightfully possess through wedlock"; thus Razi in his commentary on this verse, and Tabari in one of his alternative explanations (going back to 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas, Mujahid, and others). Razi, in particular, points out that the reference to "all married women" (al-muhsanat min an-nisa'), coming as it does after the enumeration of prohibited degrees of relationship, is meant to stress the prohibition of sexual relations with any woman other than one's lawful wife.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 27 (4:24)
Lit., "with your possessions" - i.e., offering them, as the Law demands, an appropriate dower.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 28 (4:24)
Cf. verse 4 of this surah, and the corresponding note.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 29 (4:25)
The phrase lam yastati tawlan is often taken to mean "he is not in a position to afford", i.e., in the financial sense; but Muhammad 'Abduh very convincingly expresses the view that it applies to all manner of preventive circumstances, be they of a material, personal or social nature (Manar V, 19).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 30 (4:25)
In this context, ma malakat aymanukum (lit., "those whom your right hands possess") denotes women who were captured in a holy war and have subsequently embraced Islam. In the above phrase, the pronoun "you" refers to the community as a whole.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 31 (4:25)
I.e., since all human beings - whatever their outward "social status" - are members of one and the same human family, and are therefore equal to one another in the sight of God (cf. 3:195), it is only the strength or weakness of faith which makes one person superior or inferior to another.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 32 (4:25)
Lit., "and not taking unto themselves secret love-companions". This passage lays down in an unequivocal manner that sexual relations with female slaves are permitted only on the basis of marriage, and that in this respect there is no difference between them and free women; consequently, concubinage is ruled out.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 33 (4:25)
The weaker social status of a slave makes her, obviously, more accessible to temptation than a free married woman is presumed to be.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 34 (4:25)
I.e., to those who for one reason or another are unable to marry free women and are, at the same time, not equal to the temptations arising from celibacy. As is made clear in the next sentence, the Qur'an discourages such marriages - obviously with a view to removing a major attraction from the institution of slavery as such, and thus promoting its abolition.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 35 (4:26)
An allusion to the genuine religious teachings of the past, which aimed at bringing about a harmony between man's physical nature and the demands of his spirit - a harmony which is destroyed whenever asceticism is postulated as the only possible alternative to licentiousness (see also note on surah 2, verse 143). This allusion arises from the discussion of sexual morality in the preceding passages devoted to marital relations.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 36 (4:27)
Lit., "want you to deviate with a tremendous deviation".

Shabbir Ahmed -
Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 7 (4:27)
They would rather have no laws to constrain their desires

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