15:23-24 It is we who control life and death, and we are the ultimate inheritors. And we fully know those among you who advance, and we fully know those who regress.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
 
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Edip-Layth 2:19 Or like a storm from the sky, in it are darkness, thunder, and lightning. They place their fingers in their ears from stunning noises out of fear of death; and God is aware of the ingrates.
The Monotheist Group 2:19 Or like a cloud from the sky, in it is darkness and thunder and lightning. They place their fingers in their ears from the lightning strikes out of fear of death; and God is aware of the rejecters.
Muhammad Asad 2:19 Or [the parable] of a violent cloudburst in the sky, with utter darkness, thunder and lightning: they put their fingers into their ears to keep out the peals of thunder, in terror of death; but God encompasses [with His might] all who deny the truth.
Rashad Khalifa 2:19 Another example: a rainstorm from the sky in which there is darkness, thunder, and lightning. They put their fingers in their ears, to evade death. GOD is fully aware of the disbelievers.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:19 Another example is that of a rainstorm from the sky with darkness, thunder and lightning. They plug their ears with their fingers for fear of death. And God encompasses the deniers. 14
Transliteration 2:19 Aw kasayyibin mina alssama-ifeehi thulumatun waraAAdun wabarqunyajAAaloona asabiAAahum fee athanihim mina alssawaAAiqihathara almawti waAllahu muheetunbialkafireena
A 2:19 او كصيب من السماء فيه ظلمت ورعد وبرق يجعلون اصبعهم فى ءاذانهم من الصوعق حذر الموت والله محيط بالكفرين
Edip-Layth 2:20 The lightning nearly snatches away their sight, whenever it lights the path, they walk in it, and when it becomes dark for them, they stand. Had God willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. God is capable of all things.
The Monotheist Group 2:20 The lightning nearly snatches away their sight, whenever it lights the path they walk in it, and when it becomes dark for them they stand. Had God willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight; God is capable of all things.
Muhammad Asad 2:20 The lightning well-nigh takes away their sight; whenever it gives them light, they advance therein, and whenever darkness falls around them, they stand still. And if God so willed, He could indeed take away their hearing and their sight:12 for, verily, God has the power to will anything.
Rashad Khalifa The Light of Faith 2:20 The lightning almost snatches away their eyesight. When it lights for them, they move forward, and when it turns dark, they stand still. If GOD wills, He 5 can take away their hearing and their eyesight. GOD is Omnipotent.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:20 The lightning almost snatches away their sight and vision. They walk a few steps, in a stop and go fashion. When the light helps them, they walk therein. And when darkness prevails on them, they stand still. And if God willed, He could take away their faculties of hearing and seeing. For God is Able to do all things. 15
Transliteration 2:20 Yakadu albarqu yakhtafu absarahumkullama adaa lahum mashaw feehi wa-itha athlamaAAalayhim qamoo walaw shaa Allahu lathahababisamAAihim waabsarihim inna Allaha AAalakulli shay-in qadeerun
A 2:20 يكاد البرق يخطف ابصرهم كلما اضاء لهم مشوا فيه واذا اظلم عليهم قاموا ولو شاء الله لذهب بسمعهم وابصرهم ان الله على كل شىء قدير
Edip-Layth 2:21 O people, serve your Lord who has created you and those before you that you may be conscientious.
The Monotheist Group 2:21 O mankind, serve your Lord who has created you and those before you that you may be righteous.
Muhammad Asad 2:21 O MANKIND! Worship your Sustainer, who has created you and those who lived before you, so that you might remain conscious of Him
Rashad Khalifa 2:21 O people, worship only your Lord - the One who created you and those before you - that you may be saved.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:21 O Mankind! Serve your Lord (by serving His creation). He is the One Who has created you and those before your times, so that you may journey through life secure against error. 16
Transliteration 2:21 Ya ayyuha alnnasuoAAbudoo rabbakumu allathee khalaqakum waallatheenamin qablikum laAAallakum tattaqoona
A 2:21 يايها الناس اعبدوا ربكم الذى خلقكم والذين من قبلكم لعلكم تتقون
Edip-Layth 2:22 The One who made the land a habitat, and the sky a structure, and He sent down from the sky water with which He brought out fruit as a provision for you. So do not make any equals with God while you now know.
The Monotheist Group 2:22 The One who made the land a habitat, and the sky a structure, and He sent down from the sky water with which He brought out fruit as a gift to you. So do not make any equals with God while you now know.
Muhammad Asad 2:22 who has made the earth a resting-place for you and the sky a canopy, and has sent down water from the sky and thereby brought forth fruits for your sustenance: do not, then, claim that there is any power that could rival God,13 when you know [that He is One].
Rashad Khalifa 2:22 The One who made the earth habitable for you, and the sky a structure. He sends down from the sky water, to produce all kinds of fruits for your sustenance. You shall not set up idols to rival GOD, now that you know.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:22 He Who has made the earth habitable for you, and the sky over it like a canopy, and brought down rain from therein so that fruits of His bounty may spring forth for you as abundant provision. When you understand this simple fact, (do not insult your intelligence and) do not equate others with God. 17
Transliteration 2:22 Allathee jaAAala lakumu al-ardafirashan waalssamaa binaan waanzalamina alssama-i maan faakhraja bihi mina alththamaratirizqan lakum fala tajAAaloo lillahi andadanwaantum taAAlamoona
A 2:22 الذى جعل لكم الارض فرشا والسماء بناء وانزل من السماء ماء فاخرج به من الثمرت رزقا لكم فلا تجعلوا لله اندادا وانتم تعلمون
Edip-Layth Verifiable and Falsifiable Evidence 2:23 If you are in doubt as to what We have sent down to Our servant, then bring a chapter like this, and call upon your witnesses other than God if you are truthful.6
The Monotheist Group 2:23 And if you are in doubt as to what We have sent down to Our servant, then bring a chapter like this, and call upon your witnesses other than God if you are truthful.
Muhammad Asad 2:23 And if you doubt any part of what We have, bestowed from on high, step by step, upon Our servant [Muhammad],14 then produce a surah of similar merit, and call upon any other than God to bear witness for you15 -if what you say is true!
Rashad Khalifa Mathematical Challenge 2:23 If you have any doubt regarding what we revealed to our servant, then produce one sura like these, and call upon your own witnesses against GOD, if you are truthful.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:23 (For the real skeptic, here is a reason-friendly offer.) If you are still in doubt concerning what We have revealed to Our servant (Muhammad), call and set up (a committee, commission, organization, association of the highest order) all your helpers besides God, and then produce just one Surah like this, if you are truthful. 18
Transliteration 2:23 Wa-in kuntum fee raybin mimma nazzalnaAAala AAabdina fa/too bisooratin min mithlihi waodAAooshuhadaakum min dooni Allahi in kuntum sadiqeena
A 2:23 وان كنتم فى ريب مما نزلنا على عبدنا فاتوا بسورة من مثله وادعوا شهداءكم من دون الله ان كنتم صدقين
Edip-Layth Paradise and hell Descriptions are Allegorical 2:24 If you cannot do this -- and you will not be able to do this -- then beware of the fire whose fuel is people and stones; it has been prepared for the ingrates.
The Monotheist Group 2:24 And if you cannot do this; and you will not be able to do this; then beware the Fire whose fuel is people and stones, it has been prepared for the rejecters.
Muhammad Asad 2:24 And if you cannot do it-and most certainly you cannot do it-then be conscious of the fire whose fuel is human beings and stones16 which awaits all who deny the truth!
Rashad Khalifa Allegorical Description of Hell 2:24 If you cannot do this - and you can never do this - then beware of the Hellfire, whose fuel is people and rocks; it awaits the disbelievers.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:24 And if you fail to do it - and fail you will - yet remain haughty and scornful, then guard yourselves against the fire that has been readied for those who oppose the truth, and its fuel is the masses and their stonehearted leaders alike. 19
Transliteration 2:24 Fa-in lam tafAAaloo walan tafAAaloo faittaqooalnnara allatee waqooduha alnnasuwaalhijaratu oAAiddat lilkafireena
A 2:24 فان لم تفعلوا ولن تفعلوا فاتقوا النار التى وقودها الناس والحجارة اعدت للكفرين
Edip-Layth 2:25 Give good news to those who acknowledge and do the reforms, that they will have gardens with rivers flowing beneath. Every time they receive of its fruit, they say, "This is what we have been provisioned before," and they are given its likeness/allegories. Moreover, there they will have pure spouses, and there they will abide.7
The Monotheist Group 2:25 And give good news to those who believe and do good works that they will have estates with rivers flowing beneath. Every time they receive of its fruit, they say: "This is what we have been provisioned before," and they are given its likeness. And there they will have pure spouses, and in it they will abide.
Muhammad Asad 2:25 But unto those who have attained to faith and do good works give the glad tiding that theirs shall be gardens through which running waters flow. Whenever they are granted fruits there from as their appointed sustenance, they will say, "It is this that in days of yore was granted to us as our sustenance!"-for they shall be given something that will recall that [past].17 And there shall they have spouses pure, and there shall they abide.
Rashad Khalifa Allegorical Description of Paradise 2:25 Give good news to those who believe and lead a righteous life that they will have gardens with flowing streams. When provided with a provision of fruits therein, they will say, "This is what was provided for us previously." Thus, they are given allegorical descriptions. They will have pure spouses therein, and they abide therein forever.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:25 Convey the happy news to those who have chosen to be graced with belief, and have done acts of service to humanity. For them will be a most pleasant reward, Paradise in both lives. (Try to understand it in the current human vocabulary.) - Plush Gardens with streams flowing underneath! When they are provided with the delicious fruit of their deeds, they will say, "This is what we were provided before." They had tasted some of the reward in this world. They will be given sustenance that will recall their past. These men and women will have pure companions therein, an everlasting happy family life. 20
Transliteration 2:25 Wabashshiri allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati anna lahum jannatintajree min tahtiha al-anharu kullamaruziqoo minha min thamaratin rizqan qaloo hathaallathee ruziqna min qablu waotoo bihi mutashabihanwalahum feeha azwajun mutahharatun wahumfeeha khalidoona
A 2:25 وبشر الذين ءامنوا وعملوا الصلحت ان لهم جنت تجرى من تحتها الانهر كلما رزقوا منها من ثمرة رزقا قالوا هذا الذى رزقنا من قبل واتوا به متشبها ولهم فيها ازوج مطهرة وهم فيها خلدون
Edip-Layth 2:26 God does not shy away from citing the example of a mosquito, or anything above it. As for those who acknowledge, they know that it is the truth from their Lord. As for the unappreciative, they say, "What does God want with this example?" He lets many stray by it, and He guides many, but He only lets stray the evildoers.
The Monotheist Group 2:26 God does not shy away from citing the example of a mosquito, or anything above it. As for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord. As for the rejecters, they say: "What does God want with this example?" He lets many stray by it, and He guides many, but He only lets stray the evildoers.
Muhammad Asad 2:26 Behold, God does not disdain to propound a parable of a gnat, or of something [even] less than that.18 Now, as for those who have attained to faith, they know that it is the truth from their Sustainer - whereas those who are bent on denying the truth say, "What could God mean by this parable?" In this way does He cause many a one to go astray, just as He guides many a one aright: but none does He cause thereby to go astray save the iniquitous,
Rashad Khalifa 2:26 GOD does not shy away from citing any kind of allegory7, from the tiny mosquito and greater. As for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord. As for those who disbelieve, they say, "What did GOD mean by such an allegory?" He misleads many thereby, and guides many thereby. But He never misleads thereby except the wicked,
Shabbir Ahmed 2:26 God does not shy away from citing any kind of allegory, even of a mosquito or beyond. Those who attain belief by way of reason appreciate the allegories and know that therein is contained some teaching of the truth from their Lord. On the other hand, those who have chosen to disbelieve, try to ridicule, saying, "What could God mean to teach by this similitude?" Thus He (His law of guidance) lets go astray many and shows the lighted road to many. But He never lets go astray any but those who drift away from reason. 21
Transliteration 2:26 Inna Allaha la yastahyeean yadriba mathalan ma baAAoodatan famafawqaha faamma allatheena amanoofayaAAlamoona annahu alhaqqu min rabbihim waammaallatheena kafaroo fayaqooloona matha aradaAllahu bihatha mathalan yudillu bihikatheeran wayahdee bihi katheeran wama yudillu bihiilla alfasiqeena
A 2:26 ان الله لا يستحى ان يضرب مثلا ما بعوضة فما فوقها فاما الذين ءامنوا فيعلمون انه الحق من ربهم واما الذين كفروا فيقولون ماذا اراد الله بهذا مثلا يضل به كثيرا ويهدى به كثيرا وما يضل به الا الفسقين
Edip-Layth 2:27 The ones who break their pledge to God after making the covenant, and they sever what God had ordered to be joined. Moreover, they make corruption on earth; these are the losers.
The Monotheist Group 2:27 The ones who break their pledge to God after making its covenant, and they sever what God had ordered to be delivered. And they make corruption on Earth; these are the losers.
Muhammad Asad 2:27 who break their bond with God after it has been established [in their nature],19 and cut asunder what God has bidden to be joined, and spread corruption on earth: these it is that shall be the losers.
Rashad Khalifa 2:27 who violate GOD's covenant after pledging to uphold it, sever what GOD has commanded to be joined, and commit evil. These are the losers. Two Deaths and Two Lives for the Disbelievers
Shabbir Ahmed 2:27 (Just as there is One Creator, likewise mankind is but one Community.) Those who break this ratified Bond of God and cut asunder the unity of mankind that God has commanded them to uphold, and thus lay the foundation of chaos on earth, those will be the losers in the long run. 22
Transliteration 2:27 Allatheena yanqudoona AAahdaAllahi min baAAdi meethaqihi wayaqtaAAoona maamara Allahu bihi an yoosala wayufsidoona fee al-ardiola-ika humu alkhasiroona
A 2:27 الذين ينقضون عهد الله من بعد ميثقه ويقطعون ما امر الله به ان يوصل ويفسدون فى الارض اولئك هم الخسرون
Edip-Layth 2:28 How can you not appreciate God when you were dead and He brought you to life? Then He makes you die, then He brings you to life, then to Him you return.8
The Monotheist Group 2:28 How can you reject God when you were dead and He brought you to life? Then He makes you die, then He brings you to life, then to Him you return.
Muhammad Asad 2:28 How can you refuse to acknowledge God, seeing that you were lifeless and He gave you life, and that He will cause you to die and then will bring you again to life, whereupon unto Him you will be brought back?
Rashad Khalifa 2:28 How can you disbelieve in GOD when you were dead and He gave you life, then He puts you to death, then He brings you back to life, then to Him you ultimately return?
Shabbir Ahmed 2:28 Think! How can you disbelieve in God knowing that He is the One Who gave you life when you were lifeless? Then He will cause you to die and bring you back to life again. And then, all of you will return to Him. 23
Transliteration 2:28 Kayfa takfuroona biAllahiwakuntum amwatan faahyakum thumma yumeetukumthumma yuhyeekum thumma ilayhi turjaAAoona
A 2:28 كيف تكفرون بالله وكنتم اموتا فاحيكم ثم يميتكم ثم يحييكم ثم اليه ترجعون
End Notes
Shabbir Ahmed -
Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 14 (2:19)
Plugging the ears will not make the storm disappear since denial is no solution to any problem. His changeless laws are implemented in the Universe without any exceptions and none can escape them. 7:183, 14:8, 29:54, 30:24

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 15 (2:20)
Absaarahum = Their sight = Their vision = Their sight and insight. Those who defy reason, eventually lose their perceptual and conceptual faculties. God is the Powerful Designer of His laws and He has supreme control over all things. He has prescribed laws for every thing and event in the Universe. And He does not infringe upon these laws even though He is Able to do so. 2:201, 6:96, 7:182, 10:5, 11:15, 13:8, 14:16-18, 17:18-21, 25:2, 29:54, 30:24, 36:38, 42:20, 54:49, 65:3, 79:36, 87:3. Those who reject the Divine messages and rely solely on their intellect do not realize that revelation is to the human intellect what sunlight is to the human eye. It takes them out of darkness into light. 2:257

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 16 (2:21)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 17 (2:22)
The high atmosphere serves as a protecting canopy against meteorites and keeps balance in the gases and temperature. 2:164

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 18 (2:23)
Bring some chapters of comparable merit that even come close to it in magnificence, eloquence, grandeur and wisdom 10:38, 11:13, 17:88. The use of 'We' and 'I' God uses for Himself the first person singular 'I' as well as the plural 'We'. The Qur'an being the most eloquent Book on earth has its own unique charisma and style. Slight reflection even on a translation strikes us with the beauty and variety of its usage of semantics. 'We' in relation to God indicates His Supreme Royalty, whereas 'I' gives us some idea of how close the King of kings is to us. King Cyrus of Persia calls himself 'We' in 18:87, and that is just one example. But about God, "There is none like unto Him." 112:4. Likewise, the use of the masculine gender for God in all scriptures is meant to be in conformity with our social fabric and ease of expression. For third person singular, almost all languages in the world use the male gender except when referring to a specific female

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 19 (2:24)
This fire is generated in and engulfs the hearts 2:74, 9:110, 66:6, 104:67. Hajar = Stone = Rock = A stone-hearted person = Elite leadership = An apparently tough, prominent man = The hard or high segment of a hill

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 20 (2:25)
This Paradise is not given away as charity. It has to be built in this life and then inherited. It has been described in the Qur'an allegorically and it is not confined to one particular place. It encompasses the entire Universe and is a logical consequence of living upright and contributing to the well-being of humanity. 3:133, 13:35, 14:24, 24:55, 32:17, 39:74, 47:15, 57:21, 76:5-6, 76:17

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 21 (2:26)
Men and women of reason know that abstract phenomena are frequently best understood in the form of examples, metaphors and allegories. Faasiqoon (singular, Faasiq) = Those who drift away = Who slip out of discipline = Those who cross the bounds of what is right = Fruit whose seed slips out = Egg yolk that drops out of its sHell = One who transgresses Divine laws and thus becomes vulnerable to desires and extrinsic challenge. 3:81-82, 5:3, 5:47, 5:108, 6:121, 7:102, 9:24, 9:80, 24:4, 24:55, 59:19

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 22 (2:27)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 23 (2:28)

Muhammad Asad - The Message Of Quran
Muhammad Asad - End Note 12 (2:20)
The obvious implication is: "but He does not will this"-that is, He does not preclude the possibility that "those who have taken error in exchange for guidance" may one day perceive the truth and mend their ways. The expression "their hearing and their sight" is obviously a metonym for man's instinctive ability to discern between good and evil and, hence, for his moral responsibility. - In the parable of the "people who kindle a fire" we have, I believe, an allusion to some people's exclusive reliance on what is termed the "scientific approach" as a means to illumine and explain all the imponderables of life and faith, and the resulting arrogant refusal to admit that anything could be beyond the reach of man's intellect. This "overweening arrogance", as the Qur'an terms it, unavoidably exposes its devotees - and the society dominated by them - to the lightning of disillusion which "well-nigh takes away their sight", i.e., still further weakens their moral perception and deepens their "terror of death".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 13 (2:22)
Lit., "do not give God any compeers" (andad, pl. of nidd ). There is full agreement among all commentators that this term implies any object of adoration to which some or all of God's qualities are ascribed, whether it be conceived as a deity "in its own right" or a saint supposedly possessing certain divine or semi-divine powers. This meaning can be brought out only by a free rendering of the above phrase.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 14 (2:23)
I.e., the message of which the doctrine of God's oneness and uniqueness is the focal point. By the use of the word "doubt" (rayb), this passage is meant to recall the opening sentence of this surah : "This divine writ - let there be no doubt about it.. .", etc. The gradualness of revelation is implied in the grammatical form nazzalna -which is important in this context inasmuch as the opponents of the Prophet argued that the Qur'an could not be of divine origin because it was being revealed gradually, and not in one piece (Zamakhshari).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 15 (2:23)
Lit., "come forward with a surah like it, and call upon your witnesses other than God" -namely, "to attest that your hypothetical literary effort could be deemed equal to any part of the Qur'an." This challenge occurs in two other places as well ( 10:38 and 11:13 , in which latter case the unbelievers are called upon to produce ten chapters of comparable merit); see also 17:88.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 16 (2:24)
This evidently denotes all objects of worship to which men turn instead of God-their powerlessness and inefficacy being symbolized by the lifelessness of stones-while the expression "human beings" stands here for human actions deviating from the way of truth (cf. Manar 1, 197): the remembrance of all of which is bound to increase the sinner's suffering in the hereafter, referred to in the Qur'an as "hell".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 17 (2:25)
Lit., "something resembling it". Various interpretations, some of them of an esoteric and highly speculative nature, have been given to this passage. For the manner in which I have translated it I am indebted to Muhammad `Abduh (in Manar I, 232 f.), who interprets the phrase, "It is this that in days of yore was granted to us as our sustenance" as meaning: "It is this that we have been promised during our life on earth as a requital for faith and righteous deeds." In other words, man's actions and attitudes in this world will be mirrored in their "fruits", or consequences, in the life to come - as has been expressed elsewhere in the Qur'an in the verses, "And he who shall have done an atom's weight of good, shall behold it; and he who shall have done an atom's weight of evil, shall behold it" (99:7-8). As regards the reference to "spouses" in the next sentence, it is to be noted that the term zawj (of which azwaj is the plural) signifies either of the two components of a couple-that is, the male as well as the female.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 18 (2:26)
Lit., "something above it", i.e., relating to the quality of smallness stressed here-as one would say, "such-and-such a person is the lowest of people, and even more than that" (Zamakhshari). The reference to "God's parables", following as it does immediately upon a mention of the gardens of paradise and the suffering through hell-fire in the life to come, is meant to bring out the allegorical nature of this imagery.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 19 (2:27)
The "bond with God" (conventionally translated as "God's covenant") apparently refers here to man's moral obligation to use his inborn gifts-intellectual as well. as physical-in the way intended for them by God. The "establishment" of this bond arises from the faculty of reason which, if properly used, must lead man to a realization of his own weakness and dependence on a causative power and, thus, to a gradual cognition of God's will with reference to his own behaviour. This interpretation of the "bond with God" seems to be indicated by the fact that there is no mention of any specific "covenant" in either the preceding or the subsequent verses of the passage under consideration. The deliberate omission of any explanatory reference in this connection suggests that the expression "bond with God" stands for something that is rooted in the human situation as such, and can, therefore, be perceived instinctively as well as through conscious experience: namely, that innate relationship with God which makes Him "closer to man than his neck-vein" (50:16). For an explanation of the subsequent reference to "what God has bidden to be joined", see surah 13, note 43.

Rashad Khalifa - The Final Testament
Rashad Khalifa - End Note 5 (2:20)
"He" and "she" do not necessarily imply natural gender in Arabic (Appendix 4).

Rashad Khalifa - End Note 7 (2:26)
See Appendix 5 for further discussion of Heaven and Hell.

Rashad Khalifa - End Note (2:27)

Edip-Layth - Quran: A Reformist Translation
Edip-Layth - End Note 6 (2:23)
These verses primarily refer to the mathematical system of the Quran. The most popular position among Muslim scholars is that the miracle of the Quran is its literary excellence. This is, however, an imaginary or false claim, since there is no objective or universal criteria for comparing literary texts and thereby preferring one over the other. The miraculous nature of the Quran or the Quran's claim of divine authorship and its universal appeal cannot be relegated merely to the literary taste of those who know Arabic, which may change subjectively. It is impossible to argue that the Quran is divine by comparing its literary aspects to those of Al- Mutanabbi, Taha Hussain or any other Arabic literary work. Bukhari and Ibn Hanbal, the two so-called authentic hadith collections of Sunnism, tacitly confess the impossibility of distinguishing the Quranic statements from man-made literary works since they narrate a text, which is still uttered by millions of Sunni mushriks in “bonus" prayers called nawafil. According to their report, Ibn Masud, one of the most prominent comrades of prophet Muhammad, and allegedly one of the most prolific sources of hadith, had included that prayer to his Quran as an independent chapter while expunging the last two chapters. The claim of medieval Sunni and Shiite sources regarding the requirement for two witnesses for each verse to authenticate their divine nature, regardless of the truth-value of the claim, is another acknowledgment of their inability to distinguish a Quranic revelation from fabricated statements via the so-called literary excellence criterion. See 4:82; 10:20; 74:30, and the Appendix titled On it Nineteen.

Edip-Layth - End Note 7 (2:25)
The descriptions of Hell and Paradise are allegorical. See 13:35; 17:60; 47:15; 76:16. The language of 2:25 is similar to 74:31 and may consequently imply a miraculous prophecy that might cause a great controversy in the future. The fact that the verse follows 2:23, which challenges unappreciative people regarding the miraculous nature of the Quran, supports our expectation. The Bible contains numerous verses referring to Hell. For instance: "Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like a dragnet, that was cast into the sea, and gathered some fish of every kind, which, when it was filled, they drew up on the beach. They sat down, and gathered the good into containers, but the bad they threw away. So will it be in the end of the world. The angels will come forth, and separate the wicked from among the righteous, and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be the weeping and the gnashing of teeth." (Matthew 13:47-50)

Edip-Layth - End Note 8 (2:28)
After creation, we were put to death. Through birth we were given life on this planet; we will die again and we will be resurrected for the Day of Judgment. Death is simply the stage of unconsciousness that is required by God's system where our mind is forced to travel between universes.

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